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scientific knowledge, policies, or practices. 




O lit 



ISSUED WEEKLY BY 
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 
BUREAU OF AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS 
WASHINGTON, D, C, 



VOL. 33 NOVEMBER 2, 1936 NO. 18 

FEATURE ARTICLES 

THE FRENCH NATIONAL WHEAT BOARD 
(Page 513) 

PROGRESS OF AGRICULTURAL TRADE WITH CANADA 
(Page 521) 



Page 



Australian wheat production reduced 507 

Recent feed-grain production estimates 507 

United Kingdom prospects for malting barley 509 

Japan decreases imports of American cotton 510 

Continental European wool situation influenced by devaluation 512 



506 



Foreign Crops and Markets 

L A T V: CABLES 



Vol. 33, No. 18 



New Zealand area sown for 193 r -37 reported as follows, with 
i 935- 36 — comparisons- in parentheses: ~ Wheat 222 , 000 acres ( 249 , 000 ) , 
barley 25,000 (21,000), oats 296,000 seres (344,000). (international 
Institute of Agriculture, Rome, October 29, 1936.) 

Yugoslavia 1936 corn a creage harvested placed at 6,450,000 acres 
as against. 6, 109, 000 acres . in 1935; provisional estimate of production, 
200,973,000 bushels as compared with the 1935 harvest of 119,222,000 
bushels. Acreages sown to other crops reported as follows , with 1935 
comparisons in parentheses: Potatoes 655,000 acres (635,000), sugar 
beets 75,000 (73,000), flax 33..000 (29,000), hemp 131,000 (106,000), 
hops 7,000 (7,000), cotton 5,000 (3,000), tobacco 46,000 acres (30,000). 
(international Institute of Agriculture, Rome, October 29, 1936.) 

In dia rice area for 193 6-37 forecast at 77,736,000 acres compared 
with revised first forecast of 75,698,000 acres at this time last year 
and final estimate of 81,454,000 acres for 1935-36. See table, page 534, 
(Director of Statistics. Calcutta, October 23, 1936.) 

India sesamum acr eage for 1936, second estimate, placed at 
4,023,000 a cres compared" vn* th 4,040,000 acres in 1935. (international 
Institute of Agriculture, Rome, October 27, 1936.) 

Sydney, Australia, wool sal?s opened October 25 with spirited 
competition. Chief buyers were from the Continent and Yorkshire. Com- 
pared with the closing of the preceding series on October 15, prices 
were par to 5 percent higher for fine qualities. Skirtings were showing 
the greatest appreciation. (Agricultural Attache C. C. Taylor, London, 
October 26, 1935.) 



November 2, 1935 Foreign Crops and Markets 507 

CROP AND M A RES T PROSPECTS 



BREAD GRAINS 

Summary of re cent information 

The first official estimate of the 1936-37 wheat crop of Australia 
is placed at 129,484,000 bushels, according to a cable from the Inter- 
national Institute of Agriculture at Rome. This compares with 142,308,000 
bushels produced In 1935-36 and is the smallest crop reported since 1929-30. 
The second estimate of the area sown is placed at 12,640,000 acres, an. in- 
crease of 240,000 acres over the first estimate received in July and 830,000 
acres above the area sown for the 1935-35 crop. The average yield of wheat 
per acre in Australia amounted to about 12.2 bushels during the 5-year per- 
iod 1931-32 to 1935-36, but only about 10.2 bushels per acre were obtained 
this season. The decline may be attributed to adverse weather conditions, 
which have been rather general throughout the Commonwealth. Rain was lacking 
during the latter part of the growing season, and some frost damage was 
recently reported in Now South Wales. 

Decreased estimates for Germany .and Lithuania and a marked increase 
in the Bulgarian estimate revised the total 1936 wheat crop of 38 Northern 
Hemisphere countries, excluding China and the Soviet Union, to 2,931,153,000 
bushels as compared with 3,103,208,000 bushels produced by the same coun- 
tries in 1935- Reductions in the rye estimates of Germany, Lithuania., and 
Bulgaria were also reported. The total 1936 rye crop, as represented by 
estimates from 29 countries, other than China and the Soviet Union, anounts 
to 897,522,000 bushels as compared with 965,124,000 bushels produced by 
these countries in 1935. 



PEED GRAINS 

Summary of recent information 

The production of feed grains in North America this yea,r is much 
below normal. According to the October 1 estimate, the United States har- 
vest amounts to 59,959,000 short tons, which is about 35 percent below the 
production of last year, and 32 percent below the average of the past 5 years. 
In Canada the barley and oats production is estimated at 5,451,000 short 
tons, or a decrease of 26 percent from the production of those grains in 
1935. In the European countries which have so far reported, the production 
of corn, oats, and barley totals 53,550,000 short tons compared with only 
50,592,000 tons a year ago, although the harvest is somewhat below the 
average of recent years. 



508 Foreign Crops and Markets Vol. 33, No. 18 

CROP AND MARKS T PROSPECTS, CONT'D 



The total 1936 corn crop in 0 countries reported, which last year 
accounted for three-fourths of the estimated Northern Hemisphere total, 
is 24 percent "below the production in the same countries a year ago on 
account of decreases in the United States and Rumania. In all of the other 
countries reported there are comparatively large increases. See table, 
page 535 . 

The third official estimate of the 1935-36 corn crop in Argentina 
is 392,498,000 bushels, which -is 13 percent below the record harvest of 
the preceding year. The exportable surplus on October 10 was officially 
estimated at 172,283,000 bushels. Prom April 1, the beginning of the new 
season in Argentina, to October 23, total exports this year have amounted 
to 172,400,000 bushels, of which 20,900,000 bushels were destined for the 
United States. . During the corresponding period last year total exports 
amounted to 179,500,000 bushels, of which 24,100,000 bushels went to the 
United States. 

It is reported that there is no significant carry-over of corn -from 
the last harvest in the Danube Basin countries, ffith good crops, however, 
a larger export surplus seems likely this season, particularly in Yugoslavia. 
In Rumania exports will probably be about the same as last year. In 
Hungary, although the crop is much better than last year, the domestic con- 
sumption for hog feeding is expected to utilize most of the crop. 

The total 1936 barley production in 32 countries reported, which 
last year. raised 55 percent of the estimated Northern Hemisphere total, is 
1,086,241,000 bushels, or a decrease of 12 percent from the 1935 harvest in 
those countries. The crop in the United States is only 51 percent of the 
1935 production, while the Canadian crop shows a decrease of more than 11 
percent, and Japan a 12-percent decrease. In the European countries, on 
the other hand, in the north African countries, and in Turkey, there is a 
slight increase ever the 1935 production. See table, page 535. 

The supply of barley available for export this year in Europe appears 
to be well below that of the past 2 seasons, largely on account of limited 
quantities from the Soviet Union, where the crop has been much reduced on 
account of drought and adverse weather conditions. The harvest in the 
Danube Basin countries appears to be larger, but a very active hog feeding 
and larger domestic requirements are expected. The chief European source 
of supply this year will probably be Poland, where the crop is about the 
same as last year. Reduced crops in French North Africa and Czechoslovakia 
will probably leave only small quantities available for export. 

The 1936 oats crop in the 28 countries so far reported, which in 
1935 accounted for 68 percent of the estimated Northern Hemisphere total, 



November 2, 1936 Foreign Crops and Markets 509 

CHOP AND MARKET PROSPECTS, CONT'D 



amounts to 2,585,130,000 "bushels, which is a decrease of 1? percent from 
the harvest in those countries last year. The United States and Canada 
show large decreases from the 1935 production. In the European countries, 
on the other hand, there is a very slight increase, while in the north 
African countries and Turkey there is a larger increase. See table, 
page 536. 

The volume of foreign trade in oats in the European countries is 
usually quite small. • Switzerland and Italy have been among the most im- 
portant importing countries., and -will again probably draw heavily upon 
the small Danube Basin surplus and to some extent on overseas supplies. 

A table showing feed grain prices in selected markets for the last 
few weeks, and a table giving the principal current movements in the 
international trade of barley, oats, and corn are found on page 537. 



MALTING BARLEY 
Prospects for malting barley in the United Kingdom 

Production 

The October estimate of the 193 6 barley crop in the United Kingdom 
was placed at 33,310,000 bushels, according to Agricultural Attache C. C. 
Taylor at London. This compared with 34,309,000 bushels produced in 1935 
and is about 650,000 bushels under the September- estimate. The acreage 
of barley was considerably increased this year in England and Wales, but 
yields were lower, and the outturn is now placed at 30,193,000 bushels, 
which is 2 percent below the September estimate and 1 percent less than 
the 1935 crop. Production is Scotland is. estimated at 2,987,000 bushels 
as against 3,548,000 bushels harvested last season. No official figures 
have been issued for Northern Ireland, but the barley crop is expected to 
approximate 130,000 bushels as against 148,000 bushels reported in 1935. 
With the crop of the Irish Free State placed at 6,200,000 bushels, the 
outturn of the British Isles probably will total 39,510,000 bushels as com- 
pared with 41,592,000 bushels produced in 1935. 

The quality and condition of the barley produced in England and 
Wales is said to be fairly good this year, but discoloration is prevalent 
in many areas. In the Irish Free State, quality may not equal that of 
1935 but is about average. Much of the English barley crop, was harvested 
under ideal weather conditions, and early threshings appeared on the market 
well ripened, mellow, and regular, but many of the kernels were skinned 



510 



Foreign Crops and Markets 



Vol. 33, No. 18 



CROP AND MARKET PROSPECTS, CONT'D 



because the grain was unusually dry and brittle when threshed. The best 
malting quality, however, is expected from these early threshings, because 
excessive rains later in the season delayed harvesting and stacking in 
several districts. 

Market situation 

Importations of California barley into the United Kingdom during 
July, August, and September, amounted to 1,264,000 bushels, a reduction of 
148,000 bushels from the total reported in the corresponding months of 1935. 
In the first 2 weeks of October, however, 669,000 bushels were received at 
London, Hull, and Leith. Prevailing prices are high, and sales of California 
barley are becoming difficult, it is said. California superior has increased 
in price by 78 percent since July, and fancy special brewing barley from 
California shows a gain of 44 percent over July and 42 percent when compared 
with the July price of 1935. Sales of domestic barley at statutory markets 
in England and Wales have been slightly less than in the corresponding 
period of last season, but it is too early to predict the outcome for the 
season as a whole. 

The production of beer during the 11 months, October- Augus t 1935-36, 
showed an increase of about 2 percent over Octo be r- Augus t 1934-35. Should 
brewers' requirements of malting barley approach the total for 1935-36, it 
is estimated that home-grown barley will provide about 18,000,000 bushels 
this season and imported barley around 8,000,000 bushels. 



COTTON 

Japan decreases, imports i of American cotton 

Japanese August imports of raw cotton amounted to 266,568 bales, or 
47,810 bales below those of July, according to information received from 
Agricultural Commissioner 0, L. Dawson, at Shanghai (quoting Vice Consul 
McConaughy at Kobe). With the exception of those from Brazil, cotton imports 
from the chief sources of supply shared in this decline. Thus imports of 
American were 8,048 bales; Indian, 54,421; Egyptian, 5,117; Chinese, 3,264 
bales below those of July. During the same period imports of raw cotton 
from other countries, principally Brazil, increased from 31,530 to 54,570' 
bales. The above figures indicate that the chief loss was sustained by 
Indian cotton. Yet imports for the crop year of September-August 1935-36 
compared with 1934-35, reveal that the position of Indian and Brazilian 
cotton in the Japanese market has become stronger while that of American 
has weakened. Imports of Indian cotton increased 206,693 bales. While 



November 2, 1936 . Foreign Crops and. Markets 

CHOP 'AND MARKET PROSPECTS, 



C 0 N T'.D 



511 



official figures for imports of Brazilian raw cotton are not available, 
according to a trade source, Japan imported 68,598 bales during the 1935- 
36 crop year compared with 7,380 bales. for the preceding year. . Daring the 
same period, imports of American cotton decreased. 69,473 bales. 



The decline in imports of American cotton during July-August this 
year cannot be explained on seasonal grounds, but mainly by the fact that 
Japanese importers withheld from buying earlier in the year in anticipation 
of a price decline. The slightly smaller takings of American cotton during 
the year, accompanied as they were by increased imports of Indian and 
Brazilian cotton, were chiefly due to a price relationship unfavorable to 
American, according to Mr. McGonaughy. Prices of American cottcn relative 
to Indian and Brazilian have been high for several months but the effects 
of the adjustment to this changed price situation are only now beginning to 
appear. It is reported that some spindle alterations have been made to meet 
certain changes in mixing practices. 

Cotton from Brazil is availa/ble now in greater volume. Its quality 
is not fully satisf actor:/ , but it is alleged to be more adaptable now to 
spinning requirements than heretofore. A Brazilian commercial commission 
visiting Japan at the present time has been endeavoring to increase exports 
of cotton to Japan during the forthcoming season to about 400,000 bales. 
At the present time there are no indications that any tangible results were 
obtained. It is likely that, during the 1936-37 season, however, Japan 
will purchase more Brazilian cotton than in 1935-36. 

The unfavorable price relationship and the increased competition from 
Brazilian cotton and from cotton of other growths may cause a further decline 
in American cotton exports to Japan. At the moment stocks of American cotton 
are low, and it is expected that imports of American will show a seasonal 
increase. It is doubtful, however, if imports will' equal those of the pre- 
ceding year. 



JAP AM: Raw cotton imports in August 1936, with comparisons 

(In bales of 500 pounds) 



Type 



1936 



; ex t ember - August 



: July 


August 


1934-35 


1955-oe 


1 Bales 


Bales 


Bales 


Bale s 


i 200,621 


146,200 


1,454,426 


1,661,119 


■ 62,883 


54,835 


1,622,924 


1,553,451 


: 12,295 


7,178 


160,162 


113,677 


! 7,139 


3,875 


60,811 


145,546 


■ 31,530 


54,570 


83,978 


263,133 



Indian . 
American, 
Egyptian. 
Chinese . 
Others. . 
Total. 



314,468 



266, 658 



3,362,301 



3,736,926 



512 



Jo reign Crops and Markets Vol. 33, Ho, 18 

CROP A N D MARKET PROSPECTS, CONT'D 



JAP AM: Mill takings of cotton, August 1936, with comparisons 

(in "bales of 500 pounds) 



Growth 


■ August 


September -August 


• 1935 


1936 


1934-35 


1935-36 




• Bales 


Bales 


Bales 


Bales 




. : 98,628 


146,771 


1,519,791 


1,581,491 






77,300 


• 1,750,748 


1,533,683 






8,756 


161,182 


119,624 






56,076 


146 , 554 


381,181 




246,493 


283 ,903 


3, 578 ,275 


3,615,979 



LIVESTOCK, MEAT, AND WOOL 

Continental wool situation i nfluen ced by devaluation 

The recent currency" moves in Prance and Italy have been viewed 
somewhat hopefully by the respective wool-textile industries, according to 
a report from the Berlin office of the Bureau of Agricultural Economics. In 
France it is expected that, with the pressure on the foreign balance now 
removed by currency alignment, stimulation of general economic activity in 
the country stands a better chance of being successful and, therefore, of 
raising the purchasing power of the domestic market. It is further hoped 
that the improved competitive strength the devaluated franc offers may help 
the industry to regain some of the export business lost in past years. 
Italy, on the other hand, is also hoping to regain its export business in 
wool textiles and thereby enlarge the greatly reduced raw-wool supplies, 
the latter being closely linked to proceeds from wool- textile exports. 
The Italian devaluation may also lead to some easing of the import re- 
strictions on raw material. 



The position of the wool-textile industry in Belgium has remained 
fairly favorable. Some fear is expressed regarding the effect on the 
Belgian industry of increased competition, incident to devaluation, from 
France. The situation in Germany has remained largely unchanged, with raw- 
wool supplies short and utilization of substitute fibers increased. Recont 
regulations prohibiting the designation "pure" or "guaranteed" wool, and 
the like, and prescribing the designation "woolen goods" for textiles con- 
taining up to 20 percent of artificial fibers, are designed to prevent con- 
sumer discrimination against mixed-wool textiles. 



November 2. 1936 



Foreign Crops and Markets 



513 



TEE FRENCH NATIONAL WHEAT B0A5D aj 

A National Wheat Board for the control of prices, production, market- 
ing, and disposal of surplus wheat is now; in operation in France. This 
Board was established by the law of August 15, 1936* To a considerable 
degree this law is a combination of ideas embodied in previous legislation. 
There are additional safeguards for application of the new law, however, 
and provisions for a more important role to be played by wheat cooperatives 
as well as a curbing of the activities of private grain dealers. Although 
the new scheme does not approach the complete control exemplified by the 
Italian system, it is nevertheless, the strongest a'hd most complete form 
of Government intervention so far attempted in Frarich agriculture. Con- 
sideration of the details of the law and such action as has already resulted 
from it are of interest, even though sufficient time has not yet elapsed 
to prove the effectiveness of the new Wheat Board or the success o.f its 
operations. 

Although the large crop of 1929 caused the adoption of the first 
measures of active Government intervention in wheat marketing, it was not 
until after the bumper crop of 1932 that this intervention took a definite 
form. During the following 3 years, a series of laws implemented by hun- 
dreds of decrees and regulations was adopted with a view to removing the 
wheat surplus and assuring fair returns to French wheat producers. Three 
major lines of action were undertaken; First, imports were restricted and 
an attempt wa,s made to control production within the country; second, flour 
extraction was lowered and wheat was exported and denatured through the 
granting of direct or indirect subsidies; and finally, the adoption of fixed 
minimum prices for wheat, the holding of marketable grain off the market 
through storage and carry-over programs, and policy of loans tc wheat growers 
were undertaken. Of the various measures adopted, it is believed that the 
program of import restrictions end that relating to wheat storage and carry- 
ever were most successful. Moreover, this year's crop being-small, it is 
probable that, even with some carry-over and imports from the French posses- 
sions in North Africa, during the 1936-3,7 season imports from other coun- 
tries will be necessary. It is believed therefore that, since the economic 
situation of French wheat producers has improved in recent months, the new 
scheme for the creation of the National Wheat Board, which .applies to both 
France and Algeria, was put forward as part of a long-time plan for the 
rationalization of French and Algerian agriculture. 

Administrat ion of the National Wheat Bo ard 

The Y/heat Board is an interprofessional commission with legal entity 
and financial autonomy. Its financial operations are placed under the control 
of the Minister of Finance and its technical administration under the control 
of the minister of Agriculture. Its director is appointed and dismissed by 



a/ Based on a report by L. D. Mallory, Assistant Agricultural Attache, Paris. 



514 



Foreign Crops and Markets 



Vol. 33, No. 18 



the fsmch mtxoha.l wheat board, cont'd 

decree on the motion of the Minister of Agriculture. The Board is admin- 
istered "by a Central Council of 51 members composed as follows: 

29, that is the majority of the Board, wheat producers, of whom 
18 represent wheat cooperatives and 11 are delegates of 
the Chambers of Agriculture; 
9 representatives of consumers ■ and labor unions; 

9 members from the trade, representing wheat dealers, millers, and 
bakers ; 

4 Government representatives, one each from the Ministries of 
Agriculture, Finance, National Economy, and Interior. 

Members of the Central Council, other than Government representatives, are 
appointed. for 3 years and are eligible for reappointment. 

Aside from the National Board, which is located in Paris, a local 
committee has been constituted in each county (department). These County 
T?heat Committees are composed of representatives of wheat producers, con- 
sumers, millers, bakers, and the grain trade, as well as representatives 
of the local administration, in the same proportion and under the sane con- 
ditions as the members of the National Wheat Board. The functions of tnese 
county committees are to regulate the sale of wheat to the mills, to advise 
on matters of prices and production organization, to promote and assist the 
creation of new cooperatives, and to furnish all necessary information to 
the National TTheat Board. Of particular significance is the function of 
dividing between cooperatives and grain dealers the purchase "of wheat by 
millers . 

Complete and detailed monthly statements of all dealings must be 
made to the County TTheat Committees by both cooperatives and private deal- 
ers. The National Board will exercise strict control over county commit- 
tees, cooperatives, private dealers, and millers. 

Price fixing 

The price of wheat at point of production in France is fixed each 
year by the Central Council of the National Wheat Board. In fixing this 
price, a quorum of four-fifths of the members of the Council is required 
as well as a vote of three-fourths of those present. In case these two 
conditions are not fulfilled, the Government, in a cabinet meeting, will 
fix the price of wheat. The method of fixing the price is somewhat com- 
plicated and rests essentially on the maintenance of a certain relation- 
ship between the prices which the farmer receives for his products and 
those which he pays for goods he purchases . Tne mechanics of this computa- 
tion are to multiply the average wheat prices of the years 1911, 1912, and 
1913 by a coefficient equal to the change in value between the pre-war and 
the present franc and varying with the cost of living, wages, and cost of 
producing wheat. Following this method, the Central Council on August 28, 



November 2, 1936 



Foreign Crops and Markets 



515 



THE FRENCH NATIONAL WHEAT BOARD, CONT'D 

1936, fixed the price of wheat at point of production in France for 
September 1936 at 140 francs per quintal of wheat weighing 72 kilograms 
per hectolitre ($2.38 per bushel of 57 pounds) .a/ The price series adopted 
with additions and deductions to be made for various specific weights as 
fixed by the Central Council is given on page 520. This fixed basic 
price is increased by a monthly premium to cover storage and interest cost 

The Central Council is authorized to fix the extraction rate for 
flour. The price of flour, however, as well as that of bread, will con- 
tinue to be fixed by the local prefects in the various counties. 

Control of -production and trade 

The new law requires each wheat producer to declare to the mayor 
of his commune, between April 15 and May 1 of each year, the number of 
acres he has planted to wheat. On the basis of that information, the 
Central Council of the National Board, in the second week of June, will 
make an estimate of the forthcoming crop and will at the same time fix 
the amount of wheat that each producer may sell. Before September 30, 
each producer must declare the quantity of wheat he has produced. 

Wheat sales must be proportioned over the whole year, although pro- 
ducers may obtain loans, immediately after the harvest, up to two-thirds 
of the value of their crop. For this year, a decree has already provided 
that producers may not sell more than 10 percent of their crop before 
November 1, 1936. It is believed that this small percentage has been 
adopted to enable the marketing of the previous carry-over. After 
November 1, 1936, a new scale of monthly sales will be established. 

The new law forbids the quotation of wheat in any commercial ex- 
change of France. The margin for handling grain has been fixed at 2 franc 
per quintal (2.54 cents per bushel). This margin applies to both the co- 
operatives and the private grain dealers. After 15 centimes have been 
taken off for the new sales tax on wheat, there are only 1.85 francs left 
(2.36 cents per bushel) for handling charges, an amount which the trade 
believes to be inadequate. The cooperatives may receive subsidies from 
the National Wheat Board to cover any operating losses, whereas the grain 
dealers may not. This has already resulted in some reluctance on the part 
of private grain dealers to engage in business, at least at the present 
time, and most of the wheat operations are being handled by cooperatives. 
The latter are still insufficient in number, and many farmers are experi- 
encing difficulties at the present time in disposing of their grain. A 

a/ The decision to devalue the French currency was made on September 26, 
1936, although quotations on the devalued franc were not available until 
September 30. The conversion has been made on the basis of 6.58 cents 
per franc, the average exchange rate for the period September 1 to 
September 25. All other conversions have been made on the basis of 4.67 
cents per franc, the average rate for the period October 1 to October 26. 



516 



Foreign Crops and Markets 



Vol. 33, Ho. 18 



THE FRENCH NATIONAL WHEAT BOARD, CONT'D 

part of the difficulty lies in the financing of wheat marketing, for it 
appears in many cases that the structural work of the new plan is not 
sufficiently complete as yet to permit farmers to ohtain advances on the 
wheat delivered to cooperatives or held on their farms. These two prob- 
lems of inadequate -cooperative capacity and crop financing are the main 
difficulties facing the National Wheat Board in the first 2 months of its 
operation.' . 

In the field of foreign trade, the Wheat Board acts as a monopoly 
for the importation and exportation of wheat, flour, and other "bread 
cereals. In years of short crops, when imports are held necessary, the 
Central Council is to meet before February 1 and fix the quantities of 
wheat to bo imported for the needs of the current year up to September 1. 
For the present year, the Government security stock established under the 
wheat law of December 24, 1934, part of which was- exported during the 
past season, may be put on the market. This system 'of handling wheat im- 
ports, while different as regards the physical organization of the Central 
Council, is in effect similar to that which has existed for some years, 
whereby a special Government committee determined these matters and issued 
licenses for imports when they were permitted. 

In years of wheat surpluses the Central Council is to fix the 
quantities which will be stored or exported as well as the dates when 
these operations may take place. For deliveries of wheat in excess of 
domestic requirements, quotas will be allocated to each producer. This 
quota surplus is to be delivered to the cooperatives and through them to 
the National Wheat Board at a differential price to be fixed by the. Central 
Council, which must not be more than 20 percent lower than the fixed price. 
For 1937, producers selling on the average more than 50 quintals (about 184 
bushels of 60 pounds) from the three previous crops will furnish pro-rata 
the surplus to be disposed of, thus freeing the small producer from this 
obligation. For the following years, each producer selling more than 50 
quintals will be allotted a production quota sufficient to permit a normal 
crop rotation. 

A measure of some significance to international trade is the change 
in milling- in-bond provisions. Under the system of "temporary admission" 
the importation of wheat for blending purposes was permitted in bond free 
of duty, provided an equivalent amount of wheat derivatives were reexported 
later on. The new law abolishes the system of "temporary admission" and 
replaces it by a plan whereby exports of domestic wheat or flour have to 
be made before any imports of foreign grain for blending purposes are per- 
mitted. It is thus believed that this new system will prevent any evasions 
of the law such as may have occurred in the past. 

The Central Council of the National Wheat Board is to fix the sell- 
ing price on the domestic market of any imported wheat. The prices at 
which the sale of seed wheat may be disposed of will also be fixed. 



November 2, 1936 foreign Crops end. Markets 517 

THE S&MfGH MTIOiSAL t/EeiAT BOARD, CONT'D 
T he role of wheat c oo peratives 

* 

One of the chief features of the new lav/ is the prominence given 
to wheat cooperatives. In the original draft of this law,, grain was to 
"be handled only "by cooperatives, a provision which would have greatly 
stimulated the cooperative movement in France. Under the law as passed, 
however, grain dealers are permitted to trade in wheat "but cooperative 
organizations are encouraged and the extent of competition from the deal- 
ers is considerably diminished. 

In providing for the expansion of the cooperative system, the law ■ 
states that cooperatives already in existence may modify their status to 
enable farmers, tenants, and other producers who do not become active 
members through the purchase of shares to be accepted as non-member bene- 
ficiaries of the cooperatives, paying a pro-rata share of expenses. Co- 
operatives, of course, may accept new members. Cooperative mills and 
seed-producing cooperatives are accepted under the new regime in the same 
way as storage and selling cooperatives. A measure designed in part to 
foster the cooperative spirit which will have undoubted benefits for sound 
management is that directors of cooperatives may have no direct or in- 
direct interest in a commercial enterprise. 

The function of the cooperatives is to assemble the wheat of their 
members and to sell it according to the regulations and quotations fixed 
by the Central Council -of the National Wheat Board. Because of the pres- 
ent lack of adequate facilities, cooperatives may entrust local merchants 
with the receipt, storage, or other necessary operations. A significant 
provision is that all cooperatives must purchase, ao the price and under 
the conditions fixed by the National Board, ail wheat which is offered to 
them. In order to control the various selling operations and as far as 
possible avoid any fraud, all wheat handled by cooperatives , dealers, or 
mills must be accompanied by "movement 11 certificates indicating the origin 
and destination of the grain. 

Special provisions are made for financing all wheat .-handled by co- 
operatives, a warehouse certificate pan be issued on wheat held by co- 
operatives or farmers which will be discounted by the Agricultural Credit 
Banks and re-discounted by the Bank of France, or, in Algeria, by the Bank 
of Algeria. 

Wheat dealers 

Licensed wheat dealers of French nationality, a.fter having made a 
decla.ra.tion to a county committee, subject to the latter 1 s control may 
store and deliver wheat under the same conditions and prices as the cooper- 
atives, provided they respect the provisions which may be established for 
the gradual marketing of wheat throughout the year. Wheat dealers do not 



518 



Foreign Crops and Markets 



Vol. 33, No. 18 



THE FRENCH NATIONAL WHEAT BOARD, CONT'D 



receive any of the financial advantages or subsidies accorded to coopera- 
tives. Any wheat dealer who has been penalized for law infractions may 
not continue to operate. An interesting provision of the new lav/ stipu- 
lates that a dealer must buy the entire wheat crop of any producer with 
whom he is dealing. This is a safeguard to prevent the producer from 
selling his best grain to a private dealer and consigning the remainder 
to the cooperative. The payment for grain purchased by dealers must be 
handled entirely through the intermediary of the Regional Agricultural 
Credit Dank. This measure has been adopted to prevent price manipula- 
tions. 



F inancing the wheat program 

The financing of the operations of the National Wheat Board is pro- 
vided for through the following means: 

1. A progressive tax on production; 

2. A special tax of 15 centimes on each quintal sold (0.18 cents 

per bushel) ; 

3. 15 percent of the milling tax; 

4. Apart of the customs duty on imported wheat. 



The production tax is collected only from farmers producing more 
than 100 quintals (about 367 bushels), deduction being made for the quantity 
they use, according to the following scale 



Between 0 and 100 quintals 

101 11 200 

201 " 400 

401 " 600 

601 11 800 

801 "1,000 
Over 1,000 



tax free 

1 franc per quintal 
2 
3 

4 
5 

6 



The Government expects this tax to yield about 24,000,000 francs every 
year ( $1 , 120 , 800 ) . 

The special tax of 15 centimes per quintal (0.18 cents per bushel) 
is levied on all wheat sold, whether by cooperatives or private grain 
dealers. One-half of this tax "ill be used for financing the operations 
»f county committees and the other half for the National IVheat Board. It 
is believed that this tax will provide about 6,000,000 francs a year 
($280,200) . 

The milling tax is levied on mills grinding 8,000 quintals or more 
(29,395 bushels) and varies from 4 to 5 francs per quintal (5.08 to S.35 
cents per bushel). In addition, flour -and semolina brought into contin- 
ental France will pay a special tax of 4 francs per hundred quintals (16.61 
cents per 100 barrels). This milling tax was established to pay for the^ 
heavy expenditures incurred under the wheat law of December 24, 1934, which 



November 2, 1936 



Foreign Crops and Markets 



519 



THE FHENCH NATIONAL TJHEAT 30ABD, CONT'D 

trill take several years to pay off. Ten percent of this tax was provided for 
use of the Cereal Service established by previous legislation which service 
will be discontinued after January 1, 1937. After that date, 15 percent 
of the yield will be turned over to the National TJheat Board and returns 
are expected to be about 12,000,000 francs ($560,400) a year. 

On the customs duties an amount up to 400,000,000 francs ($18,680,000) 
will be distributed to the National TJheat Board, consideration having been 
taken of funds for the benefit of the Special 'TJheat Account existing before 
the new law was passed. After these limits have been passed, the budget 
law will fix each year a proportion of the yield of the customs duties on 
imported wheat which may be turned over to the National 'TJheat Board. 

The County TJheat Committees have more limited financial resources. 
Aside from one-half of the special tax of 15 centimes per quintal of wheat 
sold (0.18 cents per bushel), however, they receive direct subsidies from 
the National TJheat Board and may receive others from counties or municipalities, 

Fixed prices of durum wheat to be paid to producers in Algeria, September 
1935 to June 19 3' 7, inclusive aj 

Basic price per quintal of durum wheat weighing from '78.5 to 80 kilograms 
per hectoliter: 
1936 

September 145.00 francs 

October 146.00 » 

November 147.00 11 

December 148.00 " 

1937 

January . , 149 . 00 11 

February , 150.50 " 

March 152.00 11 

April 153.50 11 

iiay 155.00 " 

June 156.50 11 

Additions to basic price of durum wheat weighing: 

80.000 to 80.499 kilograms 0.50 franc per quintal 

80.500 " 80.999 » 1.00 " " , " 

81.000 " 81.499 » 1.50 11 ' » 11 

81.500 » 81.999 " 2.00 " " " 

32.000 " 82.499 » 2.50 11 » " 

32.500 and up " * 3.00 " 11 11 

a/ These prices were fixed by the National TJheat Office according to the 
law of August 15, 1936. 



520 Foreign Crops end Markets Vol. 33, No. 18 



r,' a 1 • 1 T 



Deductions from "basic price of durum wheat weighing: 

78.499 to 76 kilograms 50 centimes per 500 grams 

75.999 11 74 " 75 . " " " " 

73.999 !I ' 72 » .. . , .1.25 • » . " • " . " 



whea t prices to "be paid to -producers in Prance, September 19,35 to 
July 1937, inclusive a7~ 



Basic price per quintal on wheat weighing from 71.5 to 72.999 kilograms 
per hectoliter; 

1956 

September 140.00 francs 

October 141.00 

November 142.00 

December 143.00 

1937 

January 144.00 

February 145.50 

Llarch 147.00 

April 148.50 

May 150.00 

June 151.50 

July 153.00 



Additions to basic price on wheat weighing: 

73 kilograms to 73.999 -oer hectoliter 1 



74 
75 
76 
77 
78 



74.99$ 
75.99 ( . 



77.999 
78.999 
79.999 



iranc 
ii 

M 
II 



per quintal 
n 



Deductions from basic price on wheat weighing: 

71.499 kilograms to '71. 00 per hectoliter 0.50 franc 

70.999 " » 70.00 """" " 1.50 » 

69.999 " j? 69.00 « » 2.50 " 

53.999 » » 68.00 " » 4.00 »' 

67.999 » " 67.00 " « 5.50 " 



per quintal 
n ii 

ii ii 



Deductions from basic price on wheat having 2 percent or more of impurities 

Impurities from 2 to 3 percent 1 frenc per quintal 

ii ii 3 ii 4 n p ii ii ii 

ii ii 4 ii 5 it 3 ii ii n 



a/ These prices were fixed by the National './heat Office according to the law 
of August 15, 1936. 



Hoverober 2, 1936 



Foreign Crops and Markets 



521 



PROGRESS OR AGRICULTURAL TRADE i/ITH CANADA 

The effect of the United States-Canadian Reciprocal Trade Agreement 
in stimulating agricultural trade between the two countries continues to 
be reflected in the comparison "between figures for August 1936 and those 
for the corresponding month of the preceding year. Agricultural exports 
to Canada which were not included in the agreement rose only slightly. 
Those on which Canadian duties were reduced under the agreement rose 45 
percent, in spite of the fact that the trade for August. 1936 was limited by 
smaller supplies due to the drought', while the trade of August 1935 was 
influenced by last season's more abundant harvests. On the import side, 
the movement has, of course, been influenced by the same factors. In 
this case too, much the greater rate of increase ha,s been shown, by the 
items on which duties were reduced under the agreement,, 

Figures for the first 8 months of the agreement show exports of 
$12,744,000 worth of agricultural products on which Canadian duties were 
reduced, as compared with $12,372,000 worth of agricultural imports on 
which United States duties were reduced. The former represents an in- 
crease of $3,365,000 over the corresponding period of last year; the 
Latter, an increase of $6,065,000. The former represents 39 percent of 
total agricultural exports to Canada during the first 8 months of this 
year, whereas the latter represents 22 percent oi total agricultural 
imports from Canada for the same period.' 

Exports 

The upward movement in agricultural exports to Canada in August 
affected most of the items on which tae united States received concessions. 
A few non-concession items, notably rough rice, also moved in quantities 
considerably la-rger than those of a year earlier. Of the various commodity 
groups, meat products, dried and canned fruits, and cereal foods all made 
material advances in August over last year's figures, Fresh and canned 
vegetables also gained over 1935 levels. Several important fresh fruit 
items, however, moved in smaller quantities. 

Pork products generally continue the gains made in recent months 
over last year's export figures. The volume of business remains small 
when compared with that of some recent years, but exports of hams a,nd 
shoulders, at 76,000 pounds, ?;ere larger than in July and more tnan double 
the August 1935 exports. Lard exports, at 342,000 pounds, also went anead 
of figures for other recent months and were many times larger than ex- 
ports of a year earlier. Bacon exports fell off sharply in August, out 
exports of pickled pork advanced materially to reach 535,000 pounds. The 
larger exports to Canada of these items continues to be contrary to the 
movement of the total United States exports of pork products. 



522 



Foreign Crops and Markets 



Vol. 33, Ho. 18 



PROGRESS OF AGRICULTURAL TRADE T7ITH CANADA, CONT'D 

In poultry and eggs, the live poultry item increased somewhat 
in August as against a year earlier. The more important item of dressed 
poultry, however, declined in August to only a few hundred pounds. The 
August 1935 exports amounted to about 25,000 pounds. Exports of eggs in 
the shell, usually small in the summer, showed a gain in August over figures 
for both July 1936 and August 1935. 

The outstanding August development in exports of grains and grain 
products was the reappearance of rough rice. Following several months of 
no exports, rough rice moved to Canada in August to the extent of over 
400,000 pounds. Hone was exported in August 1935. Corn exports continued 
the decline of recent months to reach insignificant proportions, and there 
was little change in the usually small business in wheat, rye, and their 
products. , Exports of packaged oatmeal, . however, advanced sharply in August 
to about 36,000 pounds. 

The August exports of oranges and grapefruit, important items in 
the fresh fruit group, were smaller than in August 1935 as well as being 
seasonally below the July exports. Exports of oranges declined to about 
156,000 coxes, with grapefruit falling to less than 16,000 boxes. About 
19,000 boxes of apples were exported in August. That figure represented 
a slight gain over the July exports, but was little more than half of the 
August 1935 exports. There was no significant movement of barreled or 
basketed apples in August this year or last. 

Substantially larger quantities of other fresh fruits were exported 
to Canada in August this year. Especially large increases were registered 
for pears, peaches, melons, and grapes. The quantities involved ranged 
from 2,400,000 pounds for melons to 9,600,000 pounds for pears. Exports 
of berries also advanced. In fresh vegetables, development of the Canadian 
producing season in August cut down the volume of movement from the June 
and July levels. Items for 1935 comparable to the 1936 listings are not 
available, but the total, value of the trade this summer was considerably 
larger than that of last year. 

In fresh fruit and vegetables, it will be recalled that Canada agreed 
to reduce the import duties and the seasonal advanced valuations upon which 
many of the ad valorem rates were computed. Canada also agreed to remove 
most of the minimum specific duties api^li cable to fruits and vegetables, and 
to liberalize the seasonal application of the advanced valuations whenever 
possible. The value of the United States exports of the items affected by 
this phase of the agreement advanced from aboxit $4,022,000 in the period 
January- August to about $5,303,000 for the corresponding 1936 period. Consul 
D. C. Hoods at Toronto reports a definitely larger movement of these items 
from the United States into Ontario. 



November 2, 1935 



Foreign Crops and Markets* 



523 



PROGRESS OF AGRICULTURAL TRADE WITH CANADA, CONT'D 

The Consul mentions especially increased imports into Ontario this 
year of grapes, strawberries, peaches, and apricots. A reduced grape crop 
in Ontario was largely instrumental in securing imports free of all valua- 
tion, as wa.s the case last year. The import duty, however, is down to 1.5 
cents per pound under the agreement against the former 2-cent rate. Apri- 
cots bore no advanced valuation this year, and paid only 15 percent, the 
new agreement rate on most fresh fruit items formerly dutiable at 20 per- 
cent or a minimum specific amount. For both peaches and strawberries the 
seasons for advanced valuations were somewhat shorter than in former years. 

Citrus fruit has never been affected by the Canadian policy of 
advanced valuation. Both oranges and grapefruit, however, were granted 
concessions in the agreement, and the volume of movement this year shows 
some increase. 

Gains over the August 1935 exports were registered in August this 
year for most of the leading items in dried and canned, fruit and canned 
vegetables. In peaches, the largest dried fruit item, the current August 
figure reached 158,000 pounds, nearly double the 1935 exports. Exports of 
dried pears, at 57,000 pounds, were more than twice as large this year as 
last. The 1935 figure of 80,500 pounds for apricots, however, was slightly 
below last year's figure. In canned fruit, pineapple exports, at 116,000 
pounds in August this year, also were more than twice as large as a year ear- 
lier. Among the other outstanding canned fruits, apricots, pears, and cherries 
all made substantial gains over the August 1935 figures. Increases also were 
registered by canned tomatoes and asparagus. In nuts, pecans continued in 
August the lead established over 1935 exports in earlier months of this year. 

Import s 

Imports during August of many of the agricultural items on which the 
United States granted concessions continued to respond to advancing prices 
in the United States. Cheese, potatoes, and certain clover seeds were 
outstanding in this group. Imports of cattle continued the dowmvard trend 
of recent months . American prices were fairly steady in August and September 
for the grades of cattle comprising the bulk of the imports from Canada » "but 
they were not high enough to overcome the usual seasonal decline in Canadian 
cattle snipments. The general volume of all agricultural imports was 
higher tnan in August 1935. 

The low-duty quota for cattle weighing 700 pounds or more, excluding 
dairy Cows, was almost exhausted by the middle of October. Total imports of 
dutiable cattle in August, the latest month for which figure are available, 
indicate a continuation of the downward trend in evidence since last April. 



524 Foreign Crops and Markets Vol. 33, No. IS 



PROGRESS OF AGR I CU LT URAL TRADE WITH CANADA, CONT'D 

On a live-weight oasis, total cattle and calf imports in the first 3 
months of 1936 represented 2.83 percent of the domestic slaughter of cattle 
and calves under Federal inspection during the same 8 months. About one- 
third of the total imports have "been classed as feeders, and have not in- 
creased immediate slaughter supplies • Total dutiable imports so far this 
year were 75,891 head larger than imports in the corresponding 1935 period. 
On a live-weight basis, this increase in imports, which occurred in cattle 
weighing 700 pounds or more, represented 0.88 percent of the 1936 federally 
inspected slaughter. 



In September, prices of the grades usually imported from Canada were 
only slightly below those of a year earlier. Prices of higher grade cattle 
in September responded to an increase in consumer demand, and had the ef- 
fect of raising the average price of all beef steers for September above 
that of August. The September 1936 average was $9.15 per 100 pounds against 
$10.35 a year earlier. The federally inspected slaughter of cattle in 
Sej)tember was 23 percent larger than that of a year earlier, 57 percent 
above the 5-year September average and the second largest commercial 
slaughter for the month on record, being exceeded only in 1913. 



UNITED STATES: Imports of cattle and calves under the quotas, 
J anuary 1 - October 17, 1 955 



^ 1 — 1 

Item 


Calves weighing 
less than 
175 pounds 


Cattle weighing 
700 pounds 
and over 


! Dairy cows 
weighing 700 
pounds & over 




51 , 933 


155,799 


20,000 


Number imported from Canada 
Percent of imports 

Number imported from Mexico 
Percent of imports 

received from Mexico ..... 


51 , 933 
100.0 
a/ 48,632 

a/ 95.6 

a/ 2,238 

a/ 4.4 ' 


153 , 326 
93.4 
132,925 

86.7 

20,401 

13.3 


4,366 
24.3 
4,863 

100.0 

0 

0 



Compiled from official records of the United States Customs Bureau. 

a/ Figures are for period January 1 - August 1, 1936. Customs Bureau has 

not yet worked out final a,lloca.tions as between Canada and Mexico. 



The domestic cheddar cheese markets continued relatively firm de- 
spite the material increase in imports. In August, when imports from 
Canada, reached 2,339,000 pounds, the average price of cheddar on the 
Wisconsin Cheese Exchange stood at 17.5 cents per pound, the highest August 
price since 1929, and 3.7 cents higher than in August 1935. The September 
1935 average stood at 17.3 cents, also the highest for that month since 1929, 
when import duties were the same for Canadian cheddar as they are at present. 



November 2, 1936 



Foreign Crops and Markets 



525 



PROGRESS OF AGRICULTURAL TRADE WITH CANADA, CONT'D 

The movement of cheese into consigning channels has "been large and stocks are 
lower then those of a year ago. The slight decline in prices from early 
September to early October resulted from prospects for increased total dairy 
production during the fall. There are indications, however, that a movement 
toward somewhat higher prices during coming months may be expected. 

Relatively high American prices continue to encourage imports of 
Canadian potatoes, both for seed and table use. Last year, no certified 
seed was imported in July and August, and imports of table stock were very 
small. This year, August imports of certified seed, while seasonally small, 
amounted to more than 2,000 bushels. Imports of table stock, at about 
10,000 bushels, were the smallest so far this year, tut were materially 
larger than those of last year. There was no change made in the import 
duty on table stock. On August 15, the average farm price for potatoes in 
the United States was $1.28 per bushel. The price as of September 15 was 
seasonally lower at $1.14. The August 1935 price was 59 cents, and 48 cents 
in September. The September 1936 price was the highest for that month since 
1929. 

Imports of fluid cream, while slightly larger in August than in 
other recent months, reached less than 2,000 gallons. For the first 8 
months of this year, total imports were under 9,000 gallons against 543 gal- 
lons imported in the corresponding period of 1935. In live poultry, the 
August imports, at about 112,000 pounds, were smaller than in July, but con- 
siderably larger than in August 1935. In dead poultry also, the August fig- 
ure of about 26,430 pounds represented a decline below July levels, but. was 
a substantial increase over the August 1935 imports. Imports of horses valued 
at not over $150 each also were smaller in August, and were not much larger 
than a year earlier. The August imports of hay, while larger than for any 
other month of this year, or of 1935, amounted to little more than 7,000 tons. 



CREAM: Imports 



into the United States from Canada, and total 'imports 
by months, 1935 and 1936 



Month 



January 
February 
March . . 
April . . . 

May 

June . . . 
July 

August . . 
Total 



1935 



Canada 


Total 


Canada 


Total 


Gallons 


Gallons 


Gallons 


Gallons 


4 


4 


10 


10 


34 


34 


246 


248 


45 


79 


1,035 


1,035 


36 


76 


2,012 


2,043 


45 


142 


1, 620 


1,761 


63 


125 


1,132 


1,136 


14 


14 


777 


739 


69 


69 


1,922 


1,922 


310 


I • 543 


3,754 


8,944 



1935 



526 Foreign Crops and Markets "Vol. 33, 7io. IS 

PROGRESS OP -AGRICULTURAL TRADE T. r ITH CANADA, CONT'D 

CATTLE: Imports into the United States from Canada and Mexico, "by 

months, 1935 and 1936 



Country, 


\rr , p.; 
Dairy 






Less than 


175 to 




Total 


year 


and 


Others 


Total 


175 


699 


Total 


dut i ab le 


month 


cows 






pUUJlCLiS 


PO LLLlU-b 




r* +" \ 1 & 






"NTnm"hpr» 


TvTi im"K p t* 


"M*i Tm"h p> t* 


ATnm"K e> v» 

IN U1U UCI 


Wi im"hpr 
u mil u x 


"Ml")TTl"hpT* 
IN UJ11 UCl 


T\Tmm*h p t* 


n A TVT ft "Pi A • 

OAi v J ADA ; 


















~\ O r7.r— 

1935 - 


January 


a/ 


a/ 
2' 


1 ,274 


a/ 
2' 


a/ 


173 


1 , 447 




February . . . . 


a/ 


a/ 

2/ 


7 ROP 


a/ 


a/ 
2/ 


677 

Oil 


4 17° 




March 


a/ 


a/ 


1 1 790 


a/ 
2/ 


a/ 


4 7R1 


3 5 771 




April. 




a/ 


17 AR7 


a/ 
2/ 


a/ 
2/ 


5 44.7 


18 9.70 

J.U j J 




May 


HI 

a/ 


o / 
2/ 


1 A 1 AP 


a/ 


a/ 
a/ 


c cn "1 

D , DXi 


pn 

OU , f OO 




June 


a / 


a / 

a/ 


c /i 
c , 4DU 


a/ 


n / 
2/ 


A R C^R 
'i , O OO 


11 71 R 
XX , OXO 




July 


n 1 


« / 


2 , 483 


/ 


/ 


O , D f 0 


D , XOO 




Augus t 


B / 


a / 


1, 987 


a / 


Pl / 


3, 531 


5,518 




Totrl 




n / 

a/ 




1 — n 

a / 


1 — n — 

ay 


PO 7AA 


RA OCO 


1936 - 


January 


2^0 


R tS7A 
O , O t t: 


P RCA 


R9 6 


R32 


"1 72R 


10,592 




February. . . . 


1 Rl 


R CR7 
o , coo 


R RCA 


1 P70 




1 77^ 


10 60.7 




March 


Pnn 


i a cm 

X4 , DOX 


X4 , OOX 


P 1 AT 
o , XftX 




7 nAC 
O , UtD 


1 7 RQ7 
X i , O U ( 




April 


7PC 
OOD 


7 A ROI 


7A RP7 
O 1 * ,00' 


C AP R 
D , ^ioO 


7 P^n 

O , oOU 


Q C7R 

y , d < o 


a a c;nP 

rr^: , OOO 




May 


q pn 


P7 771 
cu , r OX 


PA CRT 
ot: , DO X 


Q n RA 
i/ , U Ot: 


P 7PQ 
o , Ooc? 


1 1 7R7 
xx , ooo 


7C n74 




June 


! Kj'-k 


Pfl 7 7R 
oU , < OO 


ci , OU o 


1 A 777 
X^i , oo r 


P RAR 
o , 0*±0 


1 c RRn 
ID , O OO 


7p ^R7 

OO , OO t 




July 


RCA 


O , D4o 


r? , oU r 


1 A TOO 


p ah c 
o , ■yi'J D 


i c cnA 

XD , DU'i 


PR Rl 1 
OU , oxx 




August 


07(; 
ooo 


R n ^ 

o , uoo 


p , O fU 


P C71 
o , CoX 


A n7A 


C C CR 
O , D OO 


-l p crzc 

Xo , OOO 




Total 




1 PA RRC 


1 op C7C 


oip 

OU , 55 Xo 


1 C RI 7 
X D , O lu 


C7 7PR 


ICS TCI 
X J O , OU1 


MEXICO : 


















1935 - 


J anuary 


a/ 
2:/ 


a/ 


6R 


a/ 


a/ 
2/ 


4, 313 


4,381 




February. . . . 


a/ 


a/ 
2/ 


PP 

OO 


a/ 
2/ 


a/ 
2/ 


77 5.76 


.73 558 




March 


a/ 


2/ 


fip 

Do 


a/ 
2/ 


a/ 


.76 0RR 


36 , 150 




April 


a/ 


a/ 
2/ 


770 


a/ 
2/ 


a/ 


29 7.73 


30 503 




May 


a/ 

2/ 


a/ 


?4? 


a/ 
2/ 


a/ 
2/ 


26 062 


26 , 304 




June 


a/ 


n / 

27 




a / 

a/ 


a/ 
2/ 


T. Q RRT 
xi? , oo x 


PO 527 

OO , OO { 




July 


~ / 


a/ 


194 


l / 
a/ 


r, / 


XL) , bO/d 


in q /i c 
XU , o 4D 




August 


-v 

a / 


a/ 


514 


a/ 

a/ 


a/ 


9 , 216 


9 ,730 




Total 


a/ 


a/ 


2,818 


a/ 


n ! 

a/ 


169,181 


171,999 


1936 - 


January 


0' 


2,319 


2,319 


161 


8,338 


8,499 


10,818 




February . . . . 


0 


3,301 


3,301 


32 


13,819 


13,851 


17 , 152 




March 


0 


5,855 


5,855 


33 


27,195 


27 , 228 


33,083 




Ap ri 1 


0 


3,191 


3,191 


259 


30,372 


30 , 631 


33 , 822 




May. ........ 


0: 


4,027 


4,027 


128 


14, 727 


14,855 


18,882 




June 


0 


666 


666 


12 


7,096 


7,108 


7,774 




July 


0 


1,306 


1,306 


881 


5,346 


6,227 


7,533 




August 


. 0 


557 


557 


93 


5,347 


5,440 


5,997 




Total ' 


0 


21,222 


21,222 


1,599 


112,240 


113,839 


135,061 



a/ Not classified prior to January 1, 1936. 



November 2, 1936 Foreign Crops and Markets 527 

PROGRESS OF AGRICULTURAL TRADE WITH CANADA, CONT'D 



CHEDDAR CHEESE: United States production, and imports from Canada, 
by months, average 1925-1929, annual 1935 and 1936 





Average 1925- 


1929 


1935 


1936 






percent 






Percent 






Percent 






Imports 


imports 




Imports 


imports 


Pro- 


Imports 


imports 


Month 


Pro- 


from 


are of 


Pro- 


from 


are of 


duc t i on 


from 


are of 




duction 


Canada 


pro- 


duction 


Canada 


pro- 


/ 

9.1 


Canada 


pro- 






a/ 


duction 


by 


a/ 


duction 




due t i on 




1 ,000 


1,000 




1,000 


1 ,000 




t r\(~\r\ 
1 , 000 


1,000 






-pounds 


pounds 


Percent 


pounds 


pounds 


Percent 


pounds 


pounds 


Percent 


Jan • 


TR 1 °0 


467 


2.57 


?2 1 97 




0 68 


29 , 455 


707 


2.40 


JcOi 


18,717 


284 


1,52 


21,919 


49 


.22 


27,051 


605 


2.24 


Mar. 


23 , 128 


337 


1,46 


26,914 


103 


.33 - 


32 , 409 


1 , 526 


4.70 


Apr. 


27 , 809 


328 


1.18 


32,825 


47 


.14 


37,089 


373 


1.01 


May 


38 , 224 


424 


1.11 


48,926 


66 


.13 


52,395 


122 


0.23 


June 


46,061 


756 


1.64 


60,560 


63 


.10 


67,101 


493 


0.73 


July 


42,029 


742 


1.77 


55 , 238 


36 


.07 


53,032 


1,814 


3.42 


Aug. 


34,976 


595 


1.70 


53 , 101 


: 55 


.10 


44,4-5-1 


2,339 


5.26 


Sept . 


29,461 


509 


1.73 


49,053 


; 24 


.05 








Oct. 


25,105 


1,159 


4.62 


42,114 


: 61 


' .14 








Nov . 


18 , 224 


1,342 


7.36 


28,811 


; 82 


.28 








Dec . 


17,375 


1,273 


7.33 


27 , 341 


: 33 


.12 








Total 


339 , 299 


8,216 


2.42 


j 468,999 


i 769 


.16 









a/ Mostly Cheddar cheese, b/ Final figares. c/ Preliminary figures revised on 
basis of final figures for 1935. 



POTATOES: Imports into the United States from Canada and total imports, 

by months, 1934-35 and 19 35-36 



1934-35 



1935-3; 



Certified seed 



Total 



Month 


potatoes 


potatoes 


potatoes a/ 


potatoes 


Canada 


Total 


Canada 


Total 


Canada 


Total 


Canada 


Total 




Bushels 


Bushels 


Bushels 


Bushels 


Bushels 


Bushels 


Bushe 1 s 


Bushels 


Dec. 


3,792 


3,792 


35,897 


37 , 634 


25 , 518 


. 25,618 


33,797 


41,750 


Jan. 


0 


0 


28 , 532 


37,299 


20 , 634 


20 , 634 


30,306 


35,227 


Feb. 


14,550 


14 , 650 


33 , 941 


40,986 


7,036 


7,036 


15,237 


30 , 621 


Mar. 


14,893 


14,893 


46,756 


48,497 


188,919 


188,919 


190,682' 


206,862 


Apr. 


6,017 


6,017 


29 ,488 


61,431 


135,599. 


loo , 5^9 


174,448 


190,352 


May 


10 , 252 


10 , 252 


104,022 


106,819 


19,964 


.19,964 


65 ,877 


67,044 


June 


2,444 


2,444 


5,715 


5,715 


16,633 


16,648 


217,481 


225,003 


July 


0 


0 


146 


192 


25 


25 


59,937 


60 , 246 


Aug. 


0 


0 


0 


413 


2,492 • 


2,492 


12 , 554 


12,814 


Total 


52 , 048 


52 , 048 


284 , 49 7 


338,986 


416 , 920 


416,935 


800,319 


869,924 


a/ The 


quota yea 


r begins 


December 


1. 











Certified seed 



Total 



529 



Foreign Crops and Markets 



Vol. 33, No, 18 



PROGRESS OF AG-EI CULTURAL TRADE WITH CA.ADA, CCLT'D 

UNITED STATES: Exports to Canada of agricultural commodities on which 
duties were reduced, January- August , 1935 and 1936 













January- 


-Augus t 




Commodity 


Unit 






Quantity 




Va! 


.ue 








1935 a/ 


1936 


a/ 


1355 a/ 


1936 a/ 
















■ ■pc-f ■ ■ -J 

1,000 


1,000 
















dollars 


dollars 


Animals - " ■ 




















Head 






113 




221 


52 


59 


Live poultry 


Thousand 


lb. 




8 




24 


4 


12 
















207 


238 












263 


"309 


Meats - 


















Pork" ni pk 1 p c\ c v ^pT tpfl 

X X X*. , X O-Li — L O \JL V_' X o C.X u C vX . 


T n c,~\i n rl 


lb 

J- u • 




392 


2 


073 


42 


235 


Hams and shoulders. 


Thousand 


lb. 




137 




424 


32 


86 




Thousand 


lb. 




37 




80 


7 


10 


Pork, conned 


Thousand 


lb. 




69 




100 


29 


34 




Thousand 


lb. 




303 




51 


40 


6 




Thousand 


lb. 




247 




329 


55 


50 




Thousand 


lb. 




185 


3 


057 


205 


421 


Other animal products - 


















Lard (including neutral 


















lard) 


Thousand 


lb. 




517 


1,407 


64 


165 


Sausage cas ings ........ 


Thousand 


lb. 




481 




525 


192 


94 




Thousand 


doz. 




15 




99 


9 


35 
















7 


20 


Total animal products. 










272 


512 


Grains and grain products - 


















Corn and cornmeal 


Thousand 


bu. 


o/ 


112 




377 


222 


350 




Thousand 


lb. 


6, 


694 




976 


234 


93 


Wheat and wheat flour... 


Thousand 


bu. 


c/ 


12 


sJ 


49 


21 


67 


Biscuits, unsweetened... 


Thousand 


lb. 


658 




737 


: 70 


75 


Horn iny and corn gr i t s . . . 


Thousand 


lb. 


5, 


738 




730 


150 


106 
















100 


26o 


Total grains and 
































777 


965 


Vegetables and preparations- 




















Million lb. 




10 




11 


154 


270 


Other fresh vegetables. . 














2,244: 


2,851 
















56 


' 93 
















63 


63 


Vegetable prep.arafei.ons. . 














92 


108 


Total vegetables and 
































2,569 


3,385 



Continued - 



November 2, IP 3 6 



Foreign Crops and Markets 



529 



PP.0 GEE SS OP AGRICULTURAL TRADE WITH CANADA, CONT'D 



UNITED STATES : Exports to 
duties were reduced, 



Cane,da of agri 
January- Augu s 



cultural commodities on which 
t, 1955 and 1936, cont'd 



Commodity 



Unit 



J anua r y- Augu s t 



Quantity 





1935 


sJ— 


1936 a/ 


1935 a/ 


1936 a/ 












r, 000 


1 , 000 












dollars 


dollars 


Thousand 


boxes 




.768 


d/ 1,109 


d/1,911 


d/2,621 


Thousand 


boxes 




353 


377 


' 610 


783 


Thousand 


lb. ; 


e 4,438 


ej 6,650 


119 


153 


Thousand 


lb. ■ 


7 


, 263 


11, 618 


267 


381 












1,392 


1,918 


Thousand 


lb. [ 




200 


245 


13 


16 


Thousand 


lb. " 


1 


,068 


1,162 


75 


92 


Thousand 


lb. : 




396 


819 


46 


86 


Thousand 


lb. . 




460 


r! 867 


26 


46 


Thousand lb. : 




8' 


146 


1 


10 


Thousand 


lb. : 




98 


93 


8 


7 


Thousand 


lb. : 




424 


1,390 


37 


99 


Thousand 


lb. i 




964 


1,066 


93 


113 










4,598 


6,325 


Thousand 


lb. : 




78 


oOO 


36 


155 


Thousand 


lb. : 




206 


■ ■ 112 


63 


30 


Thousand 


lb. ; 


284 


712 


99 


185 


Thousand 


gal. 




202 


270 


38 


40 


Thousand 


gal . 




41 


18 


9 


7 


Thousand lb." 




87 


131 


6 


8 


Thousand 


gal. • 






455 


185 


315 


Thousand 


lb. 


1 


,123 


3,056 


192 


268 












129 


187 












17 


17 










9,379 


12,744 



Value 



Pruits and preparations - 
Oranges, fresh .. 
Grapefruit, fresh 
Apples , fresh . . . 
pears , fresh .... 
Other fresh fruit 

Pears, dried 

Peaches, dried .. 



Apricots, dried 



Other dried and 

evaporated fruit 
Apricots, canned ., 
Peaches, canned ... 
Pineapples, canned 
Other canned and 
preserved fruit.. 
Total fruit and 
preparations . . . 

Nuts - 

Pecans 

Other nuts 

Total nuts 

Molasses 



Sirup, including maple 
Malt extract and sirup 

Pruit Juices 

Pield and garden seeds 
Nursery and greenhouse 

stock , 

Miscellaneous items... 



Total 



Compiled from official records of the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, 
a/ preliminary, b/ Cornmeal converted at the rate of 4 bushels of corn to 
1 barrel of meal, cj Wheat flour converted at trie rate of 4.7 bushels of 
wheat to 1 barrel of flour, &/ January to April only, free entry having 
been granted under the agreement for these months only. e/ Apples converted 
at the following rates: 48 pounds to 1 bushel basket, 44 pounds to 1 box, 
140 pounds to 1 barrel. 



J.V1 H J- J.*- V 



PROGRESS Or AGRICULTURAL TRADE WITH CANADA , CONT'D 

UNITED STATES: Imports from Canada of agricultural commodities on which 
duties were reduced, January-Augus t , 1935 and 1936 



Commodity 



Unit 



Cattle - 

Weighing less than 700 It. b/i 
Weighing 700 Id. or over. ... ; 

Total cattle ; 

Poultry - 

Live ; 

Dead cj • • • ■ • • ; 

Total poultry ; 

Horses worth not over $150 ea. : 
Non-specified cheese - ; 

Cheddar ej j 

Other j 

Total cheese • 

Cream. I 

Cereal breakfast food • 

Hay j 

Oats j/ : 

Vegetables - ; 

Turnips and rutabagas '■ 

Seed potatoes (white)....... j 

Peas, green ; 

Total vegetables : 

Eruits - : 

Blueberries, frozen : 

Apples j 

Other ; 

Total fruits ; 

Crass and other forage seeds - : 

Timothy j 

Canada blue grass • 

Other | 

Total grass and other • 

forage seeds • 

Maple sugar ! 

Total . 



Thousand head 
Thousand head 
Thousand head 

Thousand lb. 
Thousand lb. 
Thousand lb. 
Thousand head 



Thousand lb. 
Thousand lb. 
Thousand lb. 
Gallons 
Thousand lb. 
Thousand tons 
Thousand bu. 

Million lb. 
Million lb. 
Thousand lb. 



Thousand lb. 
Bushels 
Thousand lb. 



Thousand lb. 
Thousand lb. 
Thousand lb. 

Thousand lb. 
Thousand lb. 



J anua ry - August 



Quanti ty 

1935 aT~1936 aT 



Value 

a/- 1936 a/ 



1,000 



1,000 











dollars; dollars 


29 






68 


977: 


1,065 


55 






128 


3,377: 


6,632 


84 


196 


4,254: 


7,697 


6 






608 


4: 


95 


a/ 






164 


d/i 


39 


6 


■772 


4- 


135 


4 






' 14 


488) 


1,720 


— 


if/ 


7, 


'979 




1,057 


570 




2'44 


. 73f / 


46 


e/ 570 




8, 


225 


e/ 73h/ 1,103 


310 




8, 


754 


d/i 


12 


251 






568 


27i 


51 


if 18 






• 13 


1/ 164; 


89 


766 






41 


30 8j 


14 


42- 






60 


i 238: 


381 


3 






24 


27 


323 


53 






0 


2: 


0 











_2£ZL_ 


704.. 


900 






593 


42: 


30 


3 






593 


• d/ : 


1 


88 






732 


9 : , 


65 






51: 


96 


1,974 






1 


357 


d/ 


89 






108 


llj 


12 


. 46 




1 


154 


9 


70 


.2.003 






363 


377 


82 


1 , 349 




4 


206 


193 


669 j 






6.306 


12,572... 



Compiled from official records of the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, 
a/ Preliminary, b/ Cattle weighing less than 175 pounds per head were affected 
by the United States-Canadian Trade Agreement. However, this item is not sep- 
arately classified in United States import statistics prior to 1936. c./ Does 
not include poultry imported free for use on American vessels, which amounted to 
61,254 pounds, valued at $12,014, in 1935; and 561 pounds, valued at $105 in 1936. 



Continued 



November 2, 1936 



Foreign Crops and Markets 



531 



PROGRESS OF AGRICULTURAL TRADE WITH CM ADA, CONT'D 

UNITED STATES: Imports from Canada of agricultural commodities on which. 

duties w ere reduced, J anu ary- Augu s t , 1935 and 1936, cont'd 

d/ Less than 500. e /""in eluded in "other" prior to January 1, 1936. f / Not a con- 
cession item; retained here for comparability with 1935, when it included Cheddar 
cheese, gy Excludes Swiss, Romano, Reggiano, Trovoloni, Roquefort, h/ Excludes 
Swiss, Gruye.re, Romano, Reggiano, Provoloni, Roquefort, Edam, and blue-mold, 
iy Does not include 47,831 tons, valued at $489,463, imported free during the 
1935 shortage, j/ The duty on "oats, hulled, unfit for human consumption" was 
reduced; this is not reported separately prior to January 1, 1936, and during the 
first 8 months of 1935 formed 48 percent by volume and 32 percent by value of the 
item shown. During the feed shortage of 1935, it is probable that these percent- 
ages were much higher. 

UNITED STATES: Exports to Canada by months, J anuary- August , 1935' and 1936 



T 4" p> m oTi/l rn ftiri *1" Vi 
_L uuJU cUlLL liivJIi yil 


J. *J Ou ct / 


1 Q 36 a / 


Increase or 
decrease 




; Thousand 


Thousand 


Thousand 


All commodities - 


dollars 


dollars 


dollars 


January 


21,624 


25,719 


+4,095 


February 


21,958 


23,880 


+1 , 922 


March 


24,210 


26 , 343 


+2,133 


April 


C, I } '± f o 




+ ? 7TI 


May 


29, 273 


35, 258 


+5,985 


June 


26,532 


33,511 


+ 6,979 


July 


27,124 


29,961 


+2,837 


August 


26.942 


30,463 


+3,521 


First 3 months. . 


205,141 


235. 364 


+30 , 223 


N on- agricultural - 








January 


17,603 


21,990 


+4,387 


February 


19,125 


20,411 


+1,286 


March 


21,015 


22,034 


+1,019 ■ 


April 


23,809 


26,302 


+2,493 


May 


25,626 


30 , 458 


+4,832 


June 


23,352 


28,337 


+4,985 


July 

August 

First 8 months 


23,122 
_ . 24.159 


25 , 945 
27 , 221 


+2,823 
+ 3,062 


177,811 


202,698 


+24,837 


Agricultural - 








January 


4,021 


3,729 


-292 


February 


2,833 


3,469 


+636 


March 


3,195 


4,309- 


+1,114 


April 


3,669 


3,927 


+258 


May 


3, 647 


4,800 


+1,153 


June 


3,180 


5,174 


+1,994 


July 

August 1 

First 8 months ' 


4,002 
2.733 


4,016 
3,242 


+14 
+459 


27,330. 


32,666 • 


+5 , 336 



Continued - 



532 Foreign Crops and Markets Vol.. 33, ilo. 18 

PROGRESS OF AGRICULTURAL xRADE WITH CANADA , CONT'D 

UNITED STATES: Exports to Canada "by months, January-August , 

1935 and 1936, cont'd 



Item and month 



Agricultural on which duties were 
reduced under the agreement - 

January 

February 

March 

April 

May , 

June 

July 

August , 

First 8 months , 

Other agricultural - 

January , 

February 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August , 

First 8 mon ths 

Compiled from official records 
aj Preliminary. 



; 1935 a/ ' 
• 


1936 a/ 


Increase or 
de crease 


• Thousand 


Thousand 


Thousand 


! dollars 


dollars 


• dollars 


; " 959 


1,325 


+ 366 


: 1,172 


1 , 241 


+ 69 


: 1,431 


•1,885 


+ 454 


■ 1,658 


2,201 


+ 543 


f 1,425 


1,'606 


+ 181 


: 979 


1,761 


+ 7.82 . 


: 889 


1,471 


+ 582 


■ 866 


1,254 


+ 388 


9,379 


12,744 


+ 3.365 


'. ■ 3,062 


2 , 404 


-658 


: 1,661 


2 , 228 


+ 567 


; . 1,764 


2,424 


+ 660 


1 2,011 


1,726 


-285 . 


• 2,222 


3,194 


+ 972 


j . 2,201 


3,413 


+ 1,212 


V 3,113 


2,545 


-568 


; 1,917 


1,988 


4- 71 


: 17,951 ' 19,922 


+ 1,971 



the .bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce. 



UNITED STATES: 



Imports from Canada, by months, January- Angus t , 
1935 and 1936 



item and month | 1935 a/ 

; Thousand 

i dollars 

All commodities - \ 

J anuary ! 19, 235 

February S 18,142 

March : 20,877 

April I 22,353 

May ; 27,024 

June j 22, 313 

July ! 23,726 

August : 23, 271 

First 8 months ; 176,941 



1936 a/ 



Thousand 
dollars 

24,276 
22,931 
26,822 
26,719 
28 , 744 
30,347 
30 , 715 
37 ,083 



227,637 



Increase or 
decrease 



Thousand 
dollar s 

+ 5 , 041 
+ 4,789 
+ 5 , 945 
+ 4,366 
+ 1 , 720 
+ 6,034 
+ 6,989 
+ 13,812 



+ 50,696 



Continued - 



llovomber 2, 193^ Foreign Crops and Markets 533 

PEOC-EESS OF AGEI CULTURAL TEALS UITH CM ADA, CONT'D 

UNITED STATES: Imports from Canada j by months, January -August , 

1935 and 193b, cont'd 

; ; , increase or 

Item and month • 1935 a/ : 193^ a/ ; decrease 

• Thousand : Thousand ; Thousand 

Non-agricultural - « dollars : dollars • dollars 

January j 15,379 i 19.073 i +3,69+ 

February j 1+,153 i 17,538 : +3.325 

March i 16,253 : 20, +9+ \ ++,2+1 

April i 16 ,288 ; 20,186 i +3,893 

May • : 20,750 • 22,923 : +2,173 

June : 18,225 : 23,670 : +5,Ul+5 

July : 19,639 : 22,630 : +2,991 

August : 18 ,295 j 25,558 : +7,265 

First 8 months : 158.982 j 172, 07? : ±3JlM3Q 

Agricultural b/ - ■ ; \ 

January j 3,856 I 5,203 j +1,3+7 

February j 3,929 i 5,393 ■ +1.+0+ 

March j + ,62+ j 6,328 ! +1,70+ 

April : 6,065 : 6,533 : ++68 

May '. : 6,27+ ! 5,821 ■ -+55 

June. .; • i + ,088 | 6,677 i +2,589 

July I +,087 : 8,085 • +3,998 

Augus t : h, 97^ I 13 , 5 ? 5 j ±£, 5 +9 

First 8 months : 37,959 : 55-^5 •' +17 r n0n 

Agricultural on which duties were ! j ; 

reduced under the agreement - : j j 

January ; +15 j 961 j +5+6 

February | 568 ! 1,072 j ' +50+ 

March • j 1,153 I . 1,753 +6°° 

April I 1,^53 • 2,730 ■ +1,277 

May : 1.+29 • 1,936 ; ' +507 

June j 650 j 1,751 ; +1,101 

July . i 358 I 1,206 \ +8+8 

August j £HQ ■ g&j ; +6^ 3 

First Z months . j £,506 : 1 ?, 37? ; +h,0^ 

Other agricultural - 111 

January \ 3.++1 j +,2+2 \ +801 

February j 3, +21 ! +,321 j +900 

■March ! 3, +71 ! +,575 \ +1,10+ 

April i ■ +.612 j 3,803 | -809 

May i +,8+5 : 3,885 : -96o 

June I 3, +38 i +,92o T \ +l,+88 < 

July j 3,729 : 6,879 • +3,150 

August : I 1 0 , 5 &.? ; +^g£6 

First 8 months . : 31.653 : +3,193 ' +11,5+0 

Compiled from official records of the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce. 
aj Preliminary, b/ Does not include distilled spirits. 



534 



Foreign Crops and Markets 



Vol. 33, ITo. 18 



whiAT: Closing Saturday prices of December futures 





Chicago 


Kansas City 


Minneapolis 


Winnipeg a/ 


Liverpool a/ 


Bueno 


V 


Date 






















Aires 




1935 


1935 


1935 


1936 


1935 


1936 


1955 


; 1936 


1935 


1936 


1 9^ 


J- JUO 




Cents 


Cents 


Cents 


Cents 


Cents 


Cents 


Cents 


■Cents 


Gents. 


Cauls. 


Ce,nt,a 




High c/.. 


108 


117 


111 


116 


127 


131 


95 


: . 113 


.97 


. 125 


§J 32 


d/ll7 


Lot? cj . . . 


82 


98 


78 


94 


' 83 


108 


82 


: . .84 


. 70 


. . 8.9 


d/ 55 


d/ 92 


Oct. Z.il. 


103 


115 


111 


113 


126 


128 


95 


: 109 


. . 9.7 


120. 


81 


96 


10. . . 


104 


115 


108 


.114 


121 


130 


. . 91 


: 111 


95. 


123 


73 


101 


17... 


101 


116 


103 


114 


118 


129 


89 


i 112 


95 


124 


75 


99 


24. . . . 


99 


115 


101 


113 


. 1.14 


129. 


85 


; 108 


• 94 


119 


76 


94 



a/ Conversions at noon buying rate of exchange . b/ Prices are of day previous to 
other prices, e/ July 1 to date, d/ October, November, and December futures, 1935. 
September, October, and November futures 1936-. ■ 

WHEAT: Weekly weighted average cash iprice at stated markets 





.-ill classes 


Nc 


. 2 


ITo 


. 1 


No . . 2 Hard 


■ Nc 


. 2 


Western 


Week 


and grades 


, Hard 


Winter 


Dk.N. 


Spring 


Ambe:r 


• Durum 


jted Winter 


White 


ended 


six markets 


: Nsnsps Oi fr? 


Mi niiRsnnl i p. 


liinneaoolis 


'. St . Louis 


. <3p.pttl R p / 




1935 


1936 


; 1935 


1936 


1935 


1936 


1935 


, 1936 


1935 


1 936 


19^5 


; 1936 




Cents 


Cents 


Cents 


Cent s 


Cents 


Cents 




Cejit.s_ 




Cents 


Cents 




High b/. . 


112 


132 


123 


126 


139 


150 


121 


166 


113 


122 


90 


100 


Low by . . . 


93 


99 ; 


93 


100. 


. . 109 


. 124 


101 


125 


85 


■ 96 


74 


82 


Oct. 3. . . 


111 


127 i 


122 


122. 


. 137 


. . 147 


116 


151 


110 


119 


O Q 
OG 


96 


10. .. 


112 


128 : 


123 


122 


. 139 


. 148 


121 


157 


113- 


121 


90 


97 


17... 


105 


132' 


116 • 


125. 


133 


. 150. 


118 


- ■ 157 


109 


• 122 


88 


99 


24. . . 


104 


128 ; 


114, 


122 


132 


148 


118 


147 , 


105 


121- 


86 


98 



a/ Weekly average of daily cash quotations, basis No. 1 sacked, 
b/july 1 to date. 

NICE: Area and production in India, 1931-32 to 1936-37 





Area 




Cro"o year 


; First forecast 


.Final 


Production a/ 




! revised 


estimate 






! Thousand acres 


r.-iotir.PTir! pcren 


. Mil 1 ion pounds 


1931-32 , . 


77,429 ' 


84,374 


. . 73, 922 


1932-33 


75,132 . 


. . .82,882 • • 


69,695 


1933-34 


75,080 


83,042 


69,135 


1934-35 


75,393 


81,980 


67,735 


1935-36 • 


75,698 


81,454 


. 62,091 


1935-37 


77,786 







Director of Statistics, Calcutta- aj In terms of cleaned rice, 



November 2, 1936 Foreign Crops end Markets 535 



GRAIUSt Production in specified countries, 1933-1936 



Crops "by countries ; 
reported in 1936 ; 


1933 : 


. 1934 j 


1 035 ; 


i q % : 


Percent 1936 
is of 1935 


j 


l.ooo : 


1,000 : 


1,000 j 


1,000 ; 




COSN : 


.'hushels ' bushels I 
2.396,525: 1,478,027* 


bushels ■ 
2,291,629: 


bushels : 
1,509,362: 


Percent 
65.9 




3 


939 ; 


6 


319; 


4, 


609: 


6 , 635; 


144.0 


Hungary ,.,,«. * * . • • •#.« « « • • , ; 


71, 


,229| 


82, 


599; 


55, 


837; 


102 , 130; 


182.9 




140, 


861i 


202, 


909; 


119, 


222: 


188,966; 


158.5 




37, 


440 


31, 


09 1: 


39, 


721; 


34,880j 


87.8 




179 


293 


190, 


783 


211, 


768: 


■ 195,500: 


92.3 


Europe, 5 countries..,,, : 


432 


767 


513. 


701: 


431, 


157: 


528,111: 


122.5 




g 


52a 


9. 


688; 


5 


4861 


9,425: 


. 171.8 . 




22 


426? 


19, 


255-; 


18 


173: 


b/ 19,917: 


109.6 




73 


551; 


58, 


208= 


73 


382: 


84,483; 


115.1 




95 


977 


77. 


463: 


91, 


555; 


104,400: 


114.0 




2,930 


797 2,078, 


879: 


2,819 


827; 


2.151.298: 


76.3 


Estimated Northern ! 




• 














Hemisphere total.,...,.: 


3.862 


oooi 


2.986. 


000: 


3.694, 


000 : 






BARLEY , j 




















153 


767 


116, 


680: 


282 


226; 


143,916 


51.0 




63 


359; 


63, 


742; 


83 


975: 


74.376 


88. 6 


England and Wales • 


29 


456; 


33, 


927 : 


30 


613 


30,193 


98.6 




2 


66oj 


4, 


200: 


3 


547* 


2,987 


84.2 




5 


583 


6, 


779' 


7 


283' 


7,000 


96.1 






7D' 
(\J> 




118' 




148 


130 


87.8 




4 


597* 

W »** ft 


5 


307 


5 


667 


5,603 


98,9 




9, 


165- 


9 , 


908 


9 


957 


9,186 


92.3 




2 


311; 


4, 


546 


7 


057 


5,512 


78.1 




4 


613; 


4, 


843 


4 


259 


2,007 


47.1 










185 




149 


158 


106.0 




52 


593 


47, 


494 


47. 


126 


44,473 


94.4 




100 


005: 


129, 


467 


97 


062 


; 78,523 


80.9 






640: 




465 




367 


; • ■ 331 


90.2 




■ 159, 


287; 


147, 


152 


155, 


586 


163,852 


■ 105.3 




15, 


291- 


13, 


538 


12, 


415 


I 11,762 


: 94.7 






029; 


47, 




48 


750 


j 44,699 


j 91.7 




38, 


647J 


24, 


983 


25, 


557 


; 27 , 201 


: 106.4 




21, 


267: 


18, 


828 


17, 


248 


j 19 ,428 


i 112.6 


Greece i 


10, 


539: 


8, 


991 


8, 


901 


j 9,269 


; 104.1 




16, 


147: 


8, 


609 


f 12, 


940 


i 13,917 


; 107.6 




P.P, 
o u 


543 ; 


40, 








• 68,896 


; 162.4 


Poland • 


65 


949"; 


66, 


717 


: 67, 


440 


■ 67,057 


: 99.4 




10 


647; 


11, 


663 


: 10, 


389 


J '9,967 


: 95.9 




3 


731 


5, 


276 




409 


j 3,858 


! 87.5 




8 


200: 


9, 


583 


: 7 


621 


! 8,571 


: 112.5 




710 


188: 


650 


108 


J 626 


921 


; 634,580 


: 101.2 




50 


,406: 


69 


823 


: 35 


809 


J 58,332 


J 162.9 




35 


, 991: 


. „ 44* 


753 


; 33 


019 


j 27,558 


J 83.5 




7 


,349; 


6 


,890 


i 18 


,372 


i 3 , 445 


: 18.8 




9 


,236: 


9 


033 


: 10 


461 


I 10,731 


: 102.6 


North Africa, 4 countries 


102 


,982: 


130 


,499 


97 


, 661 


• 100,066 


102.5 



Continued 



536 



Foreign Crops and Markets . ; . Vol. 33, No. 18 
FEED GRAINS: Production in specified countries, 1933-1936 Cont'd 



Crops "by countrie: 
.reported in 1 936 



1933 



Cont 1 d 



1,000 
tushels 



BARLEY 
Turkey .... 
Japan ..... 

Asia, 2 countries i 142 



73 
68 



Total 9> 32 countries . 1,172 

Estimated Northern : 

Eemi sphe re tot al • 2, 161 

CATS • 

United States • 733 

Canada j 326 

England and Wales : 85 

Scotland : 48 

Norway : 12 

Sweden : 75 

Netherlands ; 20 

Belgium \ 57 

Luxemburg • • 3 

France j 390 

Spain | 40 

Switzerland • 2 



34 
108 
24 
25 
9 



Austria 

Czechoslovakia 

Hungary , 

Yugoslavia 

Greece 

Bulgaria 

Rumania 

Poland 

Lithuania 

Estonia . . 

Finland 

Europe, 22 countries . ... . :l t 743 

Morocco ; 1 

Algeria ; 9 

Egypt j 9 

North Africa, 3 countries: 20 
Turkey 

Total, 28 countries ... 
Estimated Northern : 
Hemisphere total :4,106,QQ0 



55 
184 
22 
8 
43 



14 



2,838 



417 
631 



048 



344 



000 



166 
695 



820 
580 
416 
689 
004 
216 
548 
880 
785 
545 
Oil 
638 
654 
637 
563 
257 
948 
558 
838 
776 
014 
782 



159 



883 
703 
236 



822 



289 



131 



1934 



1,000 
bushels 



76 
73 



149 



1,111 



,073 



542 
341 



78 
45 
12 
84 
19 
55 
3 

302 
51 
1 

375 
32 
81 
17 
22 
6 
5 
38 

175 
26 
10 
53 



1.500 



1 
11 

9 



22 



10 



2,418 



782 
205 



987 



016 



000 



306 
190 



120 
150 
146 
835 
805 
566 
133 
059 
807 
439 
631 
141 
224 
869 
972 
787 
133 
806 
729 
163 
994 
485 



994 



894 
888 
033 



815 



939 



244 



3,927,000 



. 1935 



1,000 
" bushels 
62,994 
78 , 509 



1 41 , 603 



1,232,386 



2,253,000 



1,196,668 
418,995 



79,660 
47,670 
12,532 
87,796 
19,380 
53,280 
3,075 
306,958 
39 , 369 
1,392 
371 , 040 
26,924 
70,762 
16,941 
19 , 144 
6,903 
6,379 
40 , 904 
178,981 
26,627 
9,438 
41,951 



1,467,106 



1,062 
7,287 
10,461 



18,810 



15,983 



3,117,562 



4,590,000 



1936 



1,000. 
bushels 
b/' 64,120 
69,183 



133,303 



1,086,241 



783. 
291 



72 
42 
12 
83 
18 
35 
2 

293 
38 
x 

397 
28 
84 
15 
18 
8 
7 
51 
181 
22 
8 
45 



1,470 



1 
10 
10 



22 



b/ 1 6 



2 , 585 



750 
617 



380 
910 
056 
706 
085 
749 
938 
522 
070 
426 
551 
102 
006 
860 
808 
226 
861 
671 
191 
134 
336 
153 



791 



357 
334 
825 



516 



456 



130 



Percent 1936 
is of 1935 



Percent 
101.8 
88.0 



Compiled from official sources, a/ Pure crop, b/ Incomplete figure' 



34.1 



.1 



65.5 
69.6 



90.9 
90.0 
96.2 
95.3 
93.3 
67.1 
95.5 
95.6 
96.7 
102.4 
107.1 
104.4 
118.7 
99.5 
98.2 
119.2 
123.2 
126.3 
101.2 
. 83.3 
88.3 
.107.6 



.127.8 
141.8 
103.5 



119.7 



103.0 



82.9 



November 2, 1936 



Foreign Crops and Markets 



537 



FEED GRAINS IJD RYE: Weekly average price per bushel of corn, rye, 
oats, and barley at leading markers a/ 



Corn 



Week 




Chicago 




Buenos Aires 


Minneapolis 


" Chicag 


D 


Minneapolis 


ended 


; No. 3 
Yellow 


Futures. 


Future s 


11 0 


2 


No. 3 
White 


No . 


2 




: 1935 


1935 


1935 


1936 


1935 


1936 


1935 


1936 


19.35' 


1936 


1935 


1936 




; Cent s 


Cents 


Cent s ' 


Cent s 


Cents 


Cents 


Cents 


Cent s 


Cents 


Cents 


Cent s 


Cents 


High b/. . 
Low. b/ . . . 


: 96 


118 


62' 


99 


42 


56 


80 


88 


58 




46 


113 


133 


; 76 


59 


' 56; 
Dec . ' 


94 
Dec . 


37 
Nov. 


"47 
Nov. 


42 


48 


27 




25 


41 


58 


Sept. 26. 


\ 84 


112 


59; 


95 


39 
Dec . 


53 
Dec . 


■ 50 


88 


31 




45 


58 


130 


Oct. 3. . . 


: 82 


109 


61 j 


94 


41 


53 


53 


85 


31 




43 


61 


131 


10. . . 


: 88 


107 


62 : 


95 


40 


52 


55 


86 


31 




43 


58 


131 


17. . . 


; 87 


. 109 


60 : 


95 


39 


52 


50 


85 


29 




43 


59 


133 


24. . . 


: 81 


103 


61 : 


94 


38 


51 


49 


84 


29 




41 


63 


125 



Rye 



Oats 



Barley 



a/ Cash prices are weighted averages of reported sales; future prices 
averages 0 



daily quotations, b/ For period J anuary 1 to latest date 
FEED GRAINS: Movement from principal exporting countries 



are simple 
shown . 



Commodity 
and 
country 



Exports 



Shipments' 1936, 
week ended a/ 



1934-35; 1935-36 


Oct. 10 


Oct. 17; Oct. 24 


July 1 . 1935-36 
to b/ 


1936-57 

w 


1 1 , 000 
; bushels 


1 , 000 
bushels 


1 , 000 
bushels 


1,000 
bushels 


1 , 000 
bushels 


Oct. 24 
Sept. 30 
Oct. 17 
Oct. 24 


1 , 000 
bushels 
5,942 
' 2,061 
1,658 
24,579 


1,000 
bushels 


; 4,050 
: 14,453 
; 20,739 
■ 11,250 


9,886 
6,882 
9,468 
37,375 


39 

221 
1^288, 


346 

196 
1.147 


0 

1,160 


4,559 
6,52-' 
2,025 
12,517 


. 50.492 


63, 611 










32,240 


25,205 


: 1,147 
1 17,407 

i 45,753 
I 8 . 444 


1,429 
14,892 
9 , 790 
2 . 847 


0 

620 
90 


0 
124 


0 

179 

0 


Oct. 24 
Sept .30 
Oct, 24 
Oct. 24 


288 
3,314 

5,493 
1 . 010 


160 
3,170 
2,770 

260 


: 70,751 


28,958 










10,105 


6 , 360 


: 1953-34 


1934-35 
~ 880 

15,857 
256,143 

21,882 


0 

119 
10,524 
1.088 


l'S 
570 
7; 815 
25 


3 

315 
7,741 
383 


Nov . 1 to 


1934-35. 


1955-36 

811 
15, 618 
296,596 
8,835 


! 4,832 
; 23,134 
■ 228, 864 
1 8,583 


Oct. 24 
Oct. 24 
Oct. 24 
Oct. 24 


80? 
15,824 
243 , 256 
21,195 


1265,413 


294,762 










286,082 


321,860 


: 1,362 


41,141 








Sept . 30 


36,451 


16, 399 



Exports as far 



BARLEY, EXPORTS: c 
United States . 

Canada 

Argentina 

Danube & U.S-S 

Total. 

OATS, EXPORTS: 

United States. 

Canada. 

Argentina 

Danube & U.S.S 

Total 

CORN, EXPORTS: i 

United States. 

Danube & U.S.S 

Argentina 

South Africa. . 

Total 

United States 

imports 



Compiled from official and trade sources, a/ The weeks shown in these columns are 
nearest to the date shown, b/ Preliminary. c/ Year beginning July 1. d/ Year 
beginning November 1 . 



538 



Foreign Crops and Markets 



Vol. 33, 



:7o. 18 



COTTON:. Price per pound of representative raw cotton at Liverpool, 
October 25, 1933. with comparisons 



1935 



Growth 


; September 


: October 




4 


11 


18 


■ 25 


! o 


; 9 


15 


23 




Cents 


Cents 


' Cents 


Cents 


' Cents 


.Cents 


Cents 


Cents. 


jAniencan — 
















Middling 


14.05 


14.75 


14.72 


14.11 


14.42 


14.02 


14.25 


14.18 


Low Middling , . 

-Egyptian (,ju±±y good fair; - 


12.91 


13.59 


13.55 


13.06 


13.39 


13.00 


13.03 


12.95 


Sakellaridis 


21 ,64 


22.56 


21.60 


21.29 


21.72 


21.58 


22.22 


22.57 


Uppers 


15.78 


15.10 


16 . 03 


15.45 


15.63 


15.37 


15.45 


15.36 


Brazilian (Fair) - 


















Ceara 


12.80 


13.59 


13.55 


13 . 05 


13.29 


13.00 


13.23 


13 • 16 


Sao Paalo 


13.33 


14.12 


14.09 


13.59 


13.81 


13.51 


13.74 


13. 57 


East Indian - 


















Broach (Fully good) 


11,29 


11.88 


11.83 


11.51 


11.73 


11.47 


11.50 


11.22 


CP. OoomraiTo. 1, superfine 


311.63 


12.22 


12.17 


11.85 


12.05 


11.79 


11.32 


11.55 


Sind (Fully good) 

Peruvian (Good) 


10.10 


10.47 


10.31 


10.07 


10.21 


9.97 


9.85 


9.57 


Tanguis 


16.48 


17 . 17 


17.15 


16.63 


16.89 


16.58 







Converted at current exchange rate. 



BUTTER: Price per pound in New York, San Francisco, Copenhagen, and London, 

October 29, 1936, with comparisons 



Market and description 




^35 


1935 


October 22 ; 


October 29 


October 31 




Cents • 


Cents 


Cents 




33.0 i 


33.5 


29.2 




34.0 \ 


35-0 


31.5 


Copenhagen, off icial quotation. 


20.8 I 


20.5 


21.9 


London: 










26.2 i 


26.0 


27.3 




21.1 i 


21.7 


23.4 




19.8 : 


20.0 


26.2 




19.3 : 


19.9 


22.4 



Foreign prices converted at current rates of exchange. 



November 2, 1936 



Foreign Crops and Markets 

season to October 16 



539 



SUTTER: New. Zealand grading, 1936-37 

wi th c ompar i s ons 



Late 


1934-35 


i _ 1935-36 


j 1935-37 




1, 000 pounas 


1 , 000 pounas 


T - 

. 1. 000 pounas 


T7eek ended 








Augus t 7 


2,212 


2,419 


: 2,016 


14 


2, 912 


3,898 


2,811 


21 


3,640 


3,864 


: 3,366 


28 


4,. 03 8 


4. 536 


; 4.032 


Aup*h<"; t tntpl 


IP R'^P 


14- 71 7 


1 p p^r 


September 4 


. 4,738 


4,368 


i 5 , 040 


11 


5,432 


5,040 


; 5 , 544 


18 


6,261 


5,376 


■ 5,880 


25 


6.580 


5.758 


: 5.654 


September total 


23.011 


20. 552 


: 23.128 


October 2 


7,700 : 


6,496 


: 7,560 


9 


8,333 : 


7,633 


8,120 


/ : 16 . . '.. 


8,848 : 


8 , 232 


8,960 


Total August 1 to October 16 .. 


60,744 : 


57,630 


59,993 



BUTTER: Austral 



ian grading, 1936-37 season to October 10, 
with comparisons 



)ate 



1934-35 



1935-36 



1935-37 



Week ended 



July 4 
11 
18 
25 

July total 
Augus t 1 

n 

U 

15 
22 
29 

August total 
September 5 
12 
19 
25 

September total 
October 3 
10 

Total July 1 to 



October 10 



1,000 pounds 
1. 



371 

339 
499 
156 



41 



508 
487 
606 
193 
352 



146 



912 
835 
482 
078 



307 



784 
500 



43.15 



1,000 pounds 

1,120 
1 , 044 

907 

1,147 



4,218 



1,254 
1,337 
1,315 
1,579 
2,041 



2,379 

3 , 040 

3,075 
3 ,940 



12,435 



4,771 
5,383 



34 ,333 



Weekly Dairy Produce Notes, Imperial Economic Committee, 



1 , 000 pounds 

195 
156 
259 
426 



1,055 



672 
734 
942 
,516 
027 



941 



2, 



612 
639 
060 



75 



q 



1 P 



070 



Ax 



721 
059 



27 . 847 



540 Foreign Crops and Markets Vol. 33, No. 18 

GRAINS: Exports from the United States, July 1 - Oct. 24,-1935 and 1936 
PORK: Exports from the United States, Jan. 1 - Oct. 24, 1935 and 1936 



Commodity : July 1 - Oct. 24 : _ Week ended 

j__ 1935 : 1936 : Oct. 3 : O ct . 10 : Oct. 17: Oct. 24 

: 1,000.. : 1,000 : 1,000 : 1,000 : 1,000 : 1,000 

GRAINS: ; : "bushels : "bushels : "bushels : " bushel s : " bushels : "bushel s 

Wheat a/ : 92: 1,379: .92: 366: 205: 45 

Wheat flour 1/ ..: 4,263: 4,235: 315 207; 118: 164 

Barley a/ : 3,942: 4,339: 392: 39: 345: 0 

Corn : 57: 150: 0: 0: 13: 3 

Oats. ...: 136: 15: .... .1; ...0: 0: 0 

Rye .• : 4: Oj ■ 0: . . . 0: . 0: 0 

: Jan. 1 ~ Oct. 24 : : : : 

: 1,000 : 15 000 : 1, 00.0 .:. .1,000 :. 1,000 : 1,000 

PORK: : pounds : pounds : . pounds :. pounds : pounds : pounds 



Hams and shoulders : 46,941: 33,618: 159: 214: 265: 232 

Bacon, including sides : 5,69.9: ' 3,988: .. .187: . . . 123: 44: 90 

Pickled pork .: 7,355: , 8,264: . .8.0: . . . . .112: 145: 9 

Lard, excluding neu tral: 80,6 38;. 88 , 8.65: 1,920;.. 1,181: 1,530: 2,641 

Official records, Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce. , a/. Included this 
week: Pacific ports, wheat, 45,000 bushels, flour 21 , 400 ."barrels; from San 
Francisco, barley none, rice 1,632,000 pounds, h/. Includes .flour milled in 
"bond from Canadian wheat, in terms of wheat 

WHEAT, INCLUDING FLOUR: Shipments from principal exporting countries 
as given by current trade sources, 1934—35 to 1936-37 



: Total : Shipments 1936 : Shipments 

Country • shipments _j week ended ;July 1 - Oct. 24 

. :1934-35:1955-35:0ct.l0"' : Qct.l7 :0ct.24 :1935-36 : 1936-37 

: 1;000 : 1,000 : 1,000 : 1,000 : 1,000 : 1,000 : 1,000 
: bu sh e 1 s : bu she 1 s : bu sh e 1 s : bu sh o 1 s : bu sh e 1 s : bu sh e 1 s : bu she Is 



North America a/ : 162, 832:219, 688 : 5,203: 3,590: 4,049: 48,968: 89,800 

Canada, 4 markets b/. . :176, 059:246, 199: 7,449: 7, .103: 9,982:118,842:102,823 

Un ited States c/ : 21,532: 15,930.: 573; 323; 209: 4,555: 5,614 

Argentina :186,228: 77,334: .460: 1,568: 1, 979: -39, 283: 17,627 

Australia : 111 , 628 : 110, 060 : 792: 1,540: 1, 062: 28,384: 20,602 

Russia : 1,672: 30,224: 88: . 0; 0: 15,096: 88 

Danube and Bulgaria d/: 4,104: 8,216: 1,953: 2,<;24: 2,952: 4,056: 25,752 

British India : c/2, 518 : c/2, 529 : 152: 424: 808: 136: 3,128 

Total ej : 466, 782:448,101; : :155, 925:156, 997 

Total European ship- ■ : : • : \fj :f/ 

ments a/ ; 3B7 , 752: 355, 052 ; 8,040: . ; : 92,135:105,824 

Total ex- European ; : : : : :f/ if/ 

shipments a/ ... :147, 938:133, 528: 2,350: : : 32,080: 41,992 



Compiled from official and trade sources. a/ Broomhall's Corn Trade News, 
b/ Fort William, Port Arthur, Vancouver, Prince Rupert, and New Westminster. 
c/ Official. d/ Black Sea shipments only. e/ Total of trade figures includes 
North America as reported by Broomhall. f/ To October 10. 



November 2, IS 3 6 



Foreign Crops and Markets 



541 



EXCHANGE RATES: Average weekly and monthly values in New York of 
specified currencies, October 24, 1936, with comparisons a/ 



Country 



Monetary 
Unit 



Month 



1954 



Sept. 



1935 



Sept . 



July 







Cents 


Cents 


Cents 


Cents 


Cents 


Cents 


Cents 


Cents 


Argentina. . 


Paper peso . 


33.29 


32.86 


33.49 


33.50 


33.61 


32.70 


32.o4 


32.60 


Canada .... 


Dollar 


102.94 


99.26 


99.90 


99.98 


100.02 


100.04 


100.01 


100.01 




Shang yuan . . 


35.58 


37.62 


29.97 


30.05 


29.94 


29.32 


29.32 


29.34 


Denmark. . . . 


Krone 


22.30 


22.01 


22.42 


22.43 


22.48 


21.89 


21.87 


21.82 


England. . . . 


Pound 


499.41 


493.07 


502.25 


502. 59 


503.63 


490.03 


489.46 


488.89 




Franc 


6.67 


6.59 


6.62 


6.59 


6.51 


4.67 


4. 66 


4.65 


Germany. . . . 


Beichsmark. . 


40.28 


40.23 


40.32 


40.22 


40.08 


40.18 


40.22 


40.21 




Lira 


8.68 


8.14 


7.88 


7.87 


7.85 


5.26 


5. 26 


5.26 




Yen 


29.77 


28.94 


29 . 35 


29.40 


29.41 


28. 64 


28. 50 


28.56 




Peso 


27.75 


27.76 


27.76 


27.75 


27.75 


27.74 


27.75 


27.75 


Netherlands 


Guilder 


68.57 


67.56 


68.08 


67.90 


66.74 


53.09 


53.59 


53.80 


Norway 


Krone 


25.09 


24. 77 


25.23 


25.25 


25.30 


24. 63 


24.59 


24.56 


Sweden ..... 


Krona 


25. 75 


25.42 


25.89 


25.91 


25.96 


25.28 


23.44 


25.20 


Switzerland 


Franc. 


33.02 


32.50 


32.72 


32. 60 


31.42 


23.02 


22.99 


22.98 



1936 



Aug. 



Sept. 



Week ended 



1936 



Oct. 

10 



Oct. 

17 



Federal Reserve Board, a/ Noon buying rates for cable transfers. 



LIVESTOCK AND MEAT: Price per 100 pounds in specified European markets, 



October 2 1, 1955, with com parisons a/ 





Week ended 


Market and item 


October 23, 


October 14, 


October 21, 




1935 


1936 


1956 




Dollars 


Dollars 


Dollar's 


Germany: 










17.70 


17. 70 


17.70 . 


Price of lard, tcs. .Hamburg. . . . 


16.83 


15.04 


13.00 


United Kingdom; b/ 








Prices at Liverpool first 








quality - 










Nominal 


17.72 


17.68 




20.48 


21.87 


21. 61 




19.24 


19.25 


19.04 


American short cut green ham 


s 21.47 


19.85 


20.13 




17.44 


15.50 


13.46 





Liverpool quotations are on the basis of sales from importer to wholesaler 
a/ Converted at current rate of exchange, b/ Week ended Friday. 



542 



Foreign Crops snd Markets 



Vol. 33., No. 18 



Index 



Page 

Late cables 506 

Cron and Market Prospects 507 



521 
506 



AGRICULTURAL TRADE, UNITED STATE S- 

CAMADA, JANUARY- AUGUST , > 1936 

Barley: 

Area, New Zealand, 1935-1936 

Market situation (malting) , U.K., 

.October 1936 . .. 510 

Production: 

British Isles (malting).-} 

, 1935-36 . ."509 

Specified countries, 

. 1933-1935 535 

Butter: 

Gr.adings: . , , 
Australia, Oct. 10, 1936 



New Zealand, Oct. 16, 193! 



539 



Pr ic e s , sp ec if i ed me rke t s , 

Oct. 29, 1936 538 

Corn: 

Area, Yugoslavia, 1935-1936 .... 
Exportable surplus, 

Argentina, Oct. 10, 1936 

Exp o rt s , Ar <?en t ina , April- 

October, 1935-1936 

Production: 

Argentina, 1936 508 

Specified countries, 1933-1936.. 535 



506 
508 
508 



Yugoslavia, 193 5-1936 

Cotton: 

Area, Yugoslavia, 1935-1936 
Imports, Janan, 1935-1936 ., 
Prices, U.K., Oct. 23, 1936 

Exchange rates, foreign, 

Oct. 24, 1936 

Elax, area, Yugoslavia, 

1935-1936 , 



506 

506 
511 
538 

541 

506 



Page 

Grains: 

Exports, U.S., Oct. 24, 1936 .... 540 

Movement (feed), principal 

countries, Oct. 24, 1936 537 

Prices (feed), nrinc ipal markets , 

Oct. 24, 1936 537 

Hemp, area, Yugoslavia, 1935-1936.. 506 
Hons, area, Yugoslavia, 1935-1936.. 506 
Meat, (pork) : imm 

Exports, U.S., Oct. 24, 1936 .... 540 

Pr ices -f oroign markets , °ct, ?S, 1936 5U1 
Oats: 

Area, New Zealand, 19 35,1936 .... 506 
Production, specified countries, 

1933-1936 536 

Potatoes, area, Yugoslavia, 1935-1936 506 

Rice: 

Area, India, 1931-1936 ...... .506,534 

Production, India,' 1931-1936 534 

Rye, prices, U.S., Oct. 24,' 1936 .. 537 
Sesamum, area, 'india, 1935,1936 ... 506 
Sugar beets, area, Yugoslavia, 

1935-1935 506 

Tobacco, area, Yugoslavia, 19 35-1936. 506 
WHEAT : 

Ar ea ; | 

Australia, 1935-1936 507 

Nev: Zealand, 1935-1936 506 

FRENCH NATIONAL BOARD, 

AUG. 15, 1936 513 

Prices, specified markets, 

Oct. 24, 1936 534 

Product ion, Australia, .1935-1936.. 507 

Shipments, principal countries, 

Oct. 24, 1936 540 

Yield, Australia, 1936 507 

Wool: 

Sales, Australia (Sydney), 

Oct. 26, 1935 506 

Situation, Europe , Sept ember 1936. 512